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Index for Northern Wisconsin Copper Artifact Resource Manual:

(no text from tables included here)

 

Sources

 

Ahlrichs, Rob: 30, 93, 176, 186.
Baugh/Ericson: 15, 29-30, 37.
Brose, David: 28.
Brown, Charles: 6, 20, 25-26, 47, 152, 156.
Drier, Roy: 11, 13.
Engseth, Martin: 14, 36-37, 155.
Ericson & Baugh: 29-30.
Evans, Madeline, et al: 186.
Falde, Nathan: 29.
Fitting, James: 15, 34, 49, 63, 170.
Fogel, Ira: 3, 64, 175, 179.
Fox, George & Harvey Younger: 68-69.
Graeber, David/David Wengrow: 25.
Griffin, James: 18, 24, 62, 74.
Hall, Robert: 171.
Halsey, John: 17, 63.
Hamilton, Henry: 20, 33, 93.
Hill, Mark: 38, 152.
Hoy, P.R.: 5.
Johnson, Jay: 170, 172, 179.
Lawson, Publius: 11, 23, 120, 174.
Lepper, Brad: 17, 113.
Little, Gregory: 151, 171, 173.
Lovis, William: 27-28.
Malakoff, David: 12-13, 28.
Martin, Susan: 5, 11-13, 17, 24, 30, 35, 62-63, 65, 67, 152, 155-156, 169, 174-175, 181, 184.
Mason, Carol: 33-34, 63-64.
Mason, Ron: 14, 33-34, 63-64, 117, 119.
McHugh, William: 16-17, 29, 62, 65, 140.
McKern, William: 34-35.
Morris, Gordon: 4, 11-12, 23, 26, 60, 113, 120.
Neiburger, Edward J: 10-11, 92, 140.
Neubauer, Joe: 12.
Paquette, Jim: 14.
Perkins, Frederich: 25.
Pleger, Thomas: 35, 49, 62-65, 152, 186.
Pompeani, David; 15.
Quimby, George: 15-17, 23-24, 63.
Reardon, Bill: 141.
Ritzenthaler, Robert: 15-16, 49, 61-63, 65-67, 117, 158, 170, 178.
Ross, Bill: 14.
Salzer, Robert: 4, 22, 26-27, 30, 89, 117-121, 137-138, 140, 148, 152, 158, 175, 183.
Sanburn, Josh: 185-186.
Scallon & Hawley: 152.
Schumacher, J.P.: 148-149, 153.
Speth, Janet: 47, 58.
Stark, Peter: 62, 64, 67.
Steinbring, Jack: 4, 14, 18, 23, 60, 119.
Stevenson, Katherine (et al): 17, 29, 39, 75, 83, 117, 119, 171-173.
Stewart, R. Michael: 171.
Stoltman, John: 18, 63, 69, 117, 138.
Theler & Boszhardt: 180.
Thomas, Matthew: 163.
Trevelyan, Amelia: 16, 27, 31, 74, 141.
Trigger, Bruce: 170.
Tuck, James: 169-170.
Vicinus, Joan: 173.
West, George: 13.
William & Watts: 35.
Winn, Vetal: 115, 117, 121.
Wittry, Warren: 4, 11, 20, 49, 61-63, 65-67, 152, 173.
Wright, J.V.: 170.
Wormington, H.M.: 10.


Artifacts, Concepts & Locations

 

Adena: 15, 17, 29, 118, 149, 169-170, 173.
Agriculture/Horticulture: 16-18, 23, 38-39, 74, 149.
Annealing: 5, 11, 28, 120, 140, 154.
Archaic Points: 10, 15, 37-39, 47-48, 59-60, 67, 75, 82, 89, 112, 115, 141-142, 148, 158, 163.
Atlatl point: 38, 85, 181.
Bay of Green Bay: 50, 67, 75, 180.
Bayfield: 163.
Bead: 48, 67, 74, 84, 111, 113, 119-120, 138, 178.
Beadmaker: 37.
Binford, Lewis: 16, 65, 140.
Bow & Arrow/Arrow points: 18, 39, 83, 85, 113, 121, 123, 149, 169, 171, 180-181.
Bronze: 10, 139.
Brule River: 36, 155, 163.
Burial customs: 17, 24, 49-50, 61-62, 65-68, 171.
Burnsville: 38.
Burnt Rollways: 37-38, 89, 118, 137, 152, 175.
Canada: 11, 14, 37, 60, 62, 174, 181.
Canoe: 74, 85, 149.
Carapace: 48.
Celt: 10, 48, 67, 69, 84-85, 89, 111, 113-114, 138-139, 141-142, 172, 179, 182-183.
Chase: 60.
Chetek: 182.
Chippewa: 115, 118.
Chippewa River: 123.
Chisel use: 140, 169.
Clam River people: 158, 170-171.
Climate: 4, 15-19, 27, 183.
Copper industry: 5, 7, 15-16, 29, 34-35, 47, 65, 118.
Copper patina: 152.
Copper worksites/camps: 90, 112-113, 117, 119, 121, 138, 140-141, 144, 148, 150, 153, 158, 163, 169, 174, 182.

Copper tooling decline: 16, 28, 6.
Couillardville: 60.
Crescent: 37, 48, 66, 111-114, 118, 138, 142, 158, 162, 169, 173, 177.
Disks: 143, 162-163, 172.
Doering site: 158.
Ear spools: 113, 143-144.
Effigy ornaments: 120, 142, 149.
Effigy mounds: 18, 118-119, 151, 172.
Europeans: 18, 36, 48, 50, 83, 85, 140, 156.
Fish hooks: 15, 75, 118, 121, 176.
Float copper: 13, 18, 22-23, 28, 65.
Gillett: 60.
Glacial Kame: 15.
Gulf of Mexico: 15, 114.
Hall, George: 61, 65-66.
Hash marks: 48, 82-83, 143, 153.
Hawk/bird: 84, 170-171, 179.
Heafford Junction: 122, 149.
Heins Creek: 74.
Hopewell: 16, 18, 28-29, 37-38, 49, 67-68, 74-75, 84, 89-90, 113, 119-121, 138, 140-141, 143, 153, 158, 169-170, 172, 178, 181.

Hopewell Point: 74, 84, 113, 118, 138.
Hruska, Robert: 64, 67, 152.
Illinois: 4, 22-23, 39, 85, 158, 171, 183.
Jesuits: 156.
Keshena: 84.
LaFave, Reuben: 61, 65-66.
Lake Michigan: 5, 62, 75, 123, 180.
Lake Nipissing: 23-24, 62-64.
Lake Nokomis: 118, 120, 186.
Lake Superior: 5, 10, 18, 23, 28, 62-63, 123, 163.
Lake Tomahawk: 121.
Lakewood: 68.
Lakes Phase: 123.
Late Archaic Points: 37-39, 63, 67, 75-76, 84, 89, 112, 119, 152-153, 172, 182.
Lena: 47.
Libby, Walter: 49, 58, 60, 62, 65.
Little Suamico: 60, 68.
Manitowish Waters: 140.
Marinette: 37, 39, 47-48.
Menominee River: 39, 67.
Menominees: 61, 66, 68, 76.
Mero site: 75.
Merrill: 148-149.
Meteoric iron: 179.
Mexico: 69, 113-114, 139-140, 142, 172, 174.
Michigan: 4-5, 28, 36-37, 39, 47, 68, 75, 94, 112, 117, 120-121, 138-139, 152, 155.
Migration: 4-5, 10, 12, 14, 67, 89, 114, 149, 158, 175, 180.
Mines & mining, copper: 23, 28, 37-38, 65, 90, 120, 155-156, 175.
Minnesota: 5, 12, 62, 89, 148, 162, 173, 180.
Minocqua and Phase: 117, 121, 175.
"Missing" copper: 6, 13, 31.
Mississippi River: 5, 67, 94, 123, 163.
Mississippian: 16, 18, 28, 69, 85, 89-90, 114, 121, 140, 143-144, 170, 178, 181.
Mounds: 17, 68, 83-84, 117-119, 121-123, 148-149, 171, 173, 179.
NAGPRA: 17, 25, 50, 185.
Nokomis/Nokomis phase: 119-120, 175.
North Bay phase: 75.
Nose Ring: 112-113, 139, 177-178.
Oak Orchard/Pensaukee: 68-69, 117.
Obsidian: 15, 85, 112, 120-121, 152-154, 158, 180.
Oconto: 50, 68-69, 182.
Oconto Copper Burial site: 35, 49-50, 58, 61-68.
Ohio: 3, 17, 113, 117, 152-153, 162.
Oneota: 18, 67, 84-85, 90, 114, 121, 170-171.
Ornament: 15, 48, 61-62, 65-66, 112, 122, 162, 173, 176, 178.
Paleo points (potential): 48, 58-60, 67, 69, 112, 143.
Pendants: 120, 152, 162-163, 176-178.
Penis shield: 48, 178.
Porterfield: 48.
Pottery: 16-17, 67, 121, 138, 175.
Radiocarbon dating: 17, 63, 65, 67.
Riverside site: 37-39, 47, 49, 65, 67, 76, 91, 112, 121, 152, 182.
Red ocher/ROC: 15, 17, 36-38, 47, 49, 67-68, 84, 91, 122, 152, 169-172.
Red Cedar River: 172.
Rhinelander: 121.
Rib Hill: 153.
Rice Lake: 171.
SECC: 18, 114, 170.
Shell: 15, 67, 112.
Smelting/casting: 5, 11, 140.
Snake: 10, 83, 117, 122, 169-172, 179.
South America: 5, 113, 139-140, 174.
Spatulate: 67, 114, 172.
Spiral button or bead: 66-67, 113.
Spud: 37-38, 74, 89, 149.
Squirrel Lake/Phase: 117, 175.
St. Croix River: 5, 163.
Stephenson: 47.
Stiles: 69.
Stratigraphy/context: 3, 24-25, 30, 60-61, 112, 115, 186.
Sturgeon Bay: 75.
Thomas, Cyril: 172.
Trade Network: 10, 15, 17, 21, 36-39, 89, 91, 112, 120, 123, 139, 152-154, 158, 174, 179-180.
Type standardization: 20, 30.
Underwater god or Panther: 149, 174.
Updated Wittry Typology: 4-5, 15, 19, 33, 112, 114, 119, 143, 178, 186.
Village site: 14, 17, 37, 39, 49, 61, 118-121, 163, 171, 174.
Wabano Lake: 83.
Wausau: 152-153.
White Potato Lake: 47.
White quartz: 153.
Willow Reservoir: 111.
Wisconsin River: 5, 37, 94, 111, 123, 138, 144, 150, 154, 156, 180.
Woodland cultures: 15-18, 25, 67-68, 84, 89, 112, 118-119, 121, 123, 140, 144, 149, 152, 163, 169-172, 175, 182-183.

The difference in the Kindle cover is that it has the print copy's back cover. Adam thought this made a better cover and judging from the reactions I'm getting, that could be true. See the link to purchase below.

THE COMPLETE INDEX For Pensaukee: Voice of a Landscape

 

- A -
Adams, President John Q.: 126, 130.
Abrams/West Pensaukee: 204, 221, 230, 257, 276, 282-283, 297, 306, 325-326, 329, 335, 338-339, 341, 350, 352-353, 362, 365-366, 368-369.
Alamo Resort: 266.
Allens: 218, 311.
American Forestry Association: 324, 355.
American Fur Company: 66, 68, 75, 92, 104, 118.
American Revolution: 6, 38, 40, 43.
Anishnabe (Ojibwe or Chippewa): 13, 31, 33-34, 39, 41-42, 47, 51-52, 73, 91, 95, 117, 128, 136, 153, 207, 232, 247-248.

Arndt, Charles: 180.
Arndt, Hamilton: 181.
Arndt, John Penn: 6, 26, 66, 87-90, 92-94, 97-99, 101-108, 110, 112, 114, 118-119, 121-124, 126-127, 129, 136, 138-141, 143, 145, 149-150, 155-159, 161-161, 164, 166-168, 172, 175, 179, 181, 186-187, 193-196, 198-199, 208-209, 245, 250, 261, 271, 273, 328.

Arndt, J.W.: 24, 26, 66, 88, 92-93, 96-98, 100, 107, 127, 131-134, 136, 160, 163, 174, 179, 181, 185-186, 214-215, 271.

Astor, John Jacob: 53, 66-67, 107.
Automobile/car: 363-364, 366.

 

- B -
Bairds: 116, 130, 152, 162, 168, 175.
Bankruptcy: 300, 302, 309, 361.
Baptist, William: 293-294, 308, 310, 320-321, 324.
Barkers: 239, 241, 244, 252-253, 281-282, 341.
Barnum, P.T.: 219-220, 282, 323.
Barque: 23, 271-272, 351.
Bateaux: 63, 97-98.
Bay of Green Bay: 9, 19-20, 25, 82, 90, 141-144, 147, 166, 179, 183, 191, 262, 287, 292, 294, 313-314, 352.

Beaver: 13, 18-19, 32, 52, 69, 75, 106-107, 183, 345-346.
Belknap, Captain William: 104.
Bertholt, H.B.: 225-226, 230,.
Billiards: 198, 284, 305.
Birminghams: 212, 282.
Birr, August: 339.
Black Hawk (Sauk): 53, 55-56, 59, 70, 136, 148-152.
Blacksmith: 120, 131, 163, 167, 171, 204, 293, 312, 316, 321-322.
Blaine, JG: 272.
Blatzkes: 337, 348.
Bocock, William: 306.
Bovees: 281, 309, 329.
Bower, Agent John: 67-68.
Bowman, R.E.: 274-275.
Boyd, Colonel George: 149-151, 156, 159.
Bread, Daniel (Oneida): 142, 156-157, 160, 173.
Brevoort, Agent Henry B.: 72, 83, 95, 107, 121-123, 126, 138.

Bridger, Lola: 284.

British: 14, 19, 25, 28, 31-32, 36, 38, 40-43, 45-47, 49-57, 59-60, 64-65, 69, 72, 75, 77, 116, 149-150.

Brooks, H.E.: 244, 255, 266, 309.

Brookside: 191, 200, 203-205, 212, 218, 220, 222, 228-229-230, 248, 277, 281-282, 288, 296, 309, 311, 322, 335, 352, 362, 365.

Brotherton Tribe: 76, 138, 148.
Brown County: 64, 71-72, 111, 116, 123-124, 168, 197, 225.

Brush, Charles: 118-119, 147, 167.
Buffalo: 14, 18.
Bundy, J.C.: 293.
Bunyan, Paul: 11.
Burial mounds: 14.
Bush, D.L.: 225, 239, 241, 244.
Butte des Morts: 28, 64, 127, 146.
Byng, Nancy: 368.

 

- C -
Cadillac, Antoine Laumet de la Mothe: 24.
Camp Smith: 71, 81.
Canada: 15, 19, 22, 30, 32, 36, 45, 48, 53, 58, 67, 71, 150, 204, 208, 270, 333.

Capone, Al: 366.
Caramaunee (Ho-Chunk): 52.
Carron, Josette (Menominee): 77, 82, 86, 128, 130.
Cartier, Jacques: 15.
Carver, Jonathon: 29, 33, 36-37, 50.
Cass, Governor Lewis: 63, 67-68, 74, 78-79, 83, 100, 122, 126-127-129.

Catholicism: 206, 230, 261.
Census: 124, 168, 174, 177, 180-181, 186-187, 209-210, 212, 239, 350.

Ceremony or ritual: 17, 24, 30, 344.
Chambers, Colonel: 62, 69.
Champlain, Samuel de: 15.
Chatell, John: 340, 365.
Chawanon (Menomini): 34, 129.
Cheslys: 320.
Chicago (or Checagou), Illi.: 18, 36, 51, 55, 64, 70, 72-73, 89, 96, 117, 120, 143, 153-154, 161, 167-169, 214-215, 217, 221, 233, 241, 244, 262, 268-269, 271, 280, 287, 289, 293, 296-297, 301, 304, 307, 311, 322, 329, 352, 266.

Chicago & NorthWestern Rail Line: 268-270, 275, 278, 283, 287-288, 295, 305, 347.

Childs, Ebenezer: 68, 72-73, 87-90, 99, 102-103-107, 111-113, 121, 123, 139-140, 149, 152, 162, 167-168, 172, 175.

Christianity: 21, 75, 77-78, 80, 85, 160, 173, 200, 204, 230, 276, 280, 283, 286, 305, 313, 339.

Clark, Captain George Rogers: 42-43.
Clarks: 318.
Cole, Tim: 366.
Colemans: 305, 310, 321, 322.
Commercial fishing: 281, 310, 314, 333.
Conservation: 193, 200-201, 275, 297, 299, 303, 324, 345, 355, 357-358.

Copper: 8, 19, 32, 155.
Cornelius, Jacob (Oneida): 173.
Couillard, J.M.: 203.
Crooks, Ramsey: 66-69, 107.

 

- D -
Dairy: 200, 206, 325, 329-331, 352, 363.
Dakota Sioux: 13, 18, 21, 31, 34, 39, 41, 51, 57, 59, 117-118.
Davises: 204, 222, 239, 244.
Davis, Jefferson: 130-131, 153.
Decorah, Spoon (Ho-Chunk): 34
Deforestation: 266, 322.
Delanos: 195, 197, 204-205, 211, 218, 221, 228, 234, 240-241, 250, 253, 255-256, 258, 277, 281-282, 288, 290, 293, 297, 309, 352.

Democrats: 233-236, 238, 251.
De Pere, Wisc: 21, 72, 116, 166, 168, 208.
DePeyster, Captain Arent: 39-41.
Depression: 362, 364, 369.
Detroit, Mich.: 23-24, 28-29, 43, 45-46, 48-49, 55, 61, 72, 88, 96, 102, 152, 166, 168-169, 203.

Devil (or East) River: 16-17, 53, 112, 116, 131, 145, 164.
Dickens, Charles: 180.
Dickson, Robert: 41, 46-55, 57-59.
Dillinger, John: 366.
Disease: 13, 39, 71, 81, 101, 152, 154-155, 345, 350, 354.

Divorce: 210-211.
Dodge, Henry: 149, 168, 170, 188.
Doeren, Richard: 76, 190, 329.
Door County: 62, 222, 250.
Doolittle, Senator James: 242.
Doty, Judge James: 90, 94, 104, 106-107, 138, 162, 175, 180, 230.

Dousman, Michael: 55, 118.
Dredging & Goverment Dredge: 261, 278, 280, 310, 327-328, 340, 350.

Drolette, Napoleon: 348, 364.
Drought (drouth): 290-291, 294, 298.
Duck Creek: 95, 111-113, 137, 141, 143-144, 154, 156-157-159, 167, 270, 275, 287.
Durham boats: 92, 94, 97, 100, 103, 107, 121, 124, 131-132-134, 163, 194.

Dutch: 206, 208.

 

- E -
Easter: 234-235.

Eastern White Pine: 9-10, 94, 102, 106, 121, 124, 144, 167, 176, 202, 335, 342, 350, 357-358, 362.

Eastman, Harry: 181-181, 185-186, 196.
Eastman, Jonathan: 65-66.
Education/School: 75, 85, 171, 204, 228-229, 253, 261, 276, 299, 324, 339-340, 353.

Eldred, Anson: 283, 293, 319, 321.
Ellis, A.G.: 61, 71, 79, 81, 88-89, 94, 142, 157, 160, 162, 166, 168, 235.

Erie Canal: 67, 94.
Everhart, S.F.: 281.

 

- F -
Factory System: 50, 66-67, 73-74.
Falks: 211-212, 230, 241, 359, 366.
Farnsworth, William: 118-119, 147, 167, 169, 179, 194.
Father Allouez: 19-22.
Father Charlevoix: 24.
Farleys: 204, 293, 320.
Farming: 7, 29, 75, 107, 113-114, 116, 146-147, 155, 192, 196, 200, 203, 206, 211, 221, 226-227, 230-231, 260, 266, 274, 276, 281-282, 291, 295, 307, 329-330, 341-342, 347, 349, 359, 361-364.

Faulds, Dr.: 365.
Ferry boat: 62, 95, 103-104, 209.
Financial panic: 154, 174-175, 209, 221, 226, 230, 246, 269, 300-301, 346.

Fire: 227, 276, 284-286, 288-297, 303, 307, 311, 313, 316, 340, 350, 358, 366-367.

Fish/Fishing: 9, 18, 24-25, 71, 80, 83, 89, 147, 212, 278, 286, 305, 334, 346-349, 369,
Commercial: 92, 107, 114, 118, 147-148, 193, 246, 273, 276, 281, 310, 313, 333, 342, 346-348, 350-351, 360-361
Habitat damage: 140, 262, 265, 274-275, 314, 325, 332
Regulation: 170, 172, 207, 275, 342, 348-349
Sport/Diet: 20-21, 23, 132, 184, 345, 348, 359-360, 202-203
Stocking of: 314-315, 342, 360-361.
Fish hatchery: 265, 275, 313-314, 332.
Fitzpatrick, Eugene: 252, 366.
Forests (and trees): 6-7, 9-11, 14-15, 18, 20-21, 23, 83, 97, 99, 106, 109, 114, 117, 193, 198, 200, 262, 265, 276, 287, 290, 292-293, 295, 298, 306, 324, 327, 329, 335, 343.

Forestry Service: 266, 358-359.
Fort Crawford: 117, 130, 135.
Fort Edward Augustus: 33, 40.
Fort Howard: 62, 64, 66, 69, 71, 74, 81, 84-85, 95-96, 105, 111, 123, 130, 135, 141, 143-144, 179, 209, 224, 250, 256, 269-270, 288, 291.

Fort Michilimackanic (Fort Mackinac): 6, 18, 23-24, 29, 31, 33-37, 39-40, 45, 48-50, 53, 55-58, 60-61, 64, 66, 68, 71-72, 75, 77, 88, 92, 106, 115, 136.

Fort St. Francois La Baye: 25, 28-31, 41, 46, 57.
Fort Winnebago: 74, 130, 150.
Fox Tribe: 21, 28-29, 34, 39, 41-42, 46-47, 148, 165, 205.

Fox River: 9, 20, 56, 64, 66, 72, 77, 79, 81-82, 88, 95, 97-98, 100-101, 103-105, 111-112, 130-131, 133, 135, 137, 141-143, 146, 148, 155, 162, 170, 193-194, 234, 244.
Francart, H.J.: 206, 261.
France: 25, 28, 31, 47-48, 51.
Franks, Jacob : 49-50, 52-53, 64, 67-69, 116.
Freeharty, Captain: 93-94.
French & Indian War: 25, 31, 38.
French: 14-15, 17-19, 21-25, 28-29, 31-32, 36, 38-39, 41-43, 50, 64, 70, 72, 80-81, 89, 97, 132, 136-137, 167, 242.

French, Bella: 118.
Fur trade: 6, 13, 18-19, 31, 38, 40-41, 46, 48, 51-53, 66-70, 73-74, 80, 89-90, 95, 106, 118, 149, 161, 183.

 

- G -
Galena, Illi.: 93, 100-103, 168, 268.
Gardner, Freeland B.: 191, 194-196, 206, 213-222, 225-226-228, 230, 239, 250, 254, 260, 262-263, 265, 271-273, 276-281, 283-285, 287, 289, 296, 300-302, 304, 307, 309-310, 314, 321-322, 324, 327-328, 331-332, 335, 339, 349-350.
Gardner, Isaac: 222.
Gasoline motorboat: 350.
Germans: 191, 200-202, 208, 227, 235, 282, 305, 355.
Gillett, Wisc.; 119-120, 302.
Glynns: 318.
Goddards: 221, 254-255, 316, 321.
Go-devil: 280-281.
Gorrell, Commander James: 33-34.
Grand Chute: 112, 134, 145.
Grant, President U.S.: 298, 301.
Green Bay, Wisc: 6, 9, 14-16, 18, 23-25, 35-36, 48, 52, 56-58, 61, 64, 66, 70, 72-73, 81, 85, 87, 89-90, 93-95, 97, 100-101, 103, 106, 111-113, 117-118, 121-122, 134-135, 137-138, 143, 145-146, 150-152, 154, 161-163, 166, 168, 173, 179, 181, 185, 192-194, 203, 208, 215, 218, 223, 228, 235, 241, 246, 249, 258, 264, 269-270, 277, 289, 291, 307, 334-335, 347, 352.

Grignon, Augustine: 56, 61, 63-64, 68, 134, 167.
Grignon, David: 77, 86, 107, 129, 355.
Grignon, Louis: 57, 63, 116.
Grignon, Pierre: 58, 68.
Grignon, Pierre Jr.: 116, 138, 159, 167.
Griffon: 23.
Grizzly Bear (Menominee): 137, 152, 155.
Groselliers, Medard Chouart des: 18-19.
Grosses: 205, 208, 221, 223, 321, 326, 353.

 

- H -
Hales: 204, 226, 252-253, 255, 257-258, 266, 282, 287.
Half-breed: 17, 78, 95, 109, 170-172.
Hamilton, F.F.: 162.
Hardwick, Lewis: 256.
Hardwick, Moses: 72, 131, 187, 191, 202-203, 230, 239, 257, 264.

Hell's Creek: 145, 161.
Highway: 365.
Hinsdales: 119, 125, 175, 191, 195-196, 215.
Ho-Chunk (tribe; also Winnebago): 16-17, 24-25, 33-35, 42, 46-47, 52, 54-55, 57, 59, 79-83, 85, 95, 101, 116, 126-128, 131, 136-137, 148, 150-151, 155, 162-163, 165, 173, 194, 205, 207, 247-248, 313, 336.

Holt & Balcolm: 261, 312, 323.

Hotel, Gardners: 278-279, 283-286, 287, 296-297, 300, 302-303, 305-307, 317-319, 321, 324, 347.

Hough, Joseph: 219.
Hubbard, Daniel W.: 124, 156, 185.
Hudson Bay Company: 19, 71.
Huebschers: 191, 200.
Huron (tribe): 15.

 

- I -
Ice Age: 7.
Illinois: 18, 23, 34, 36, 46, 48, 53, 111, 148, 211, 214.
Illinois (tribe): 17.
Immigrants/Migration: 13, 44, 153-154, 162, 165, 181, 191, 197, 201-202, 204, 206, 208, 229, 329, 335, 338.

Indians (generic use, see Tribes by Names): 6, 11-26, 31, 36, 39-41, 43-48, 50-56, 66, 71, 73, 88, 91-92, 95, 100-102, 109, 113, 117, 125, 133, 136, 149, 152, 154, 167, 184, 194, 198, 202, 231-232, 236, 248, 257, 288, 301, 311, 345, 356.

Indian Affairs: 78, 107, 125, 173, 188, 234, 247, 312, 344, 356.
Insects: 11, 219, 231, 311, 346, 350.
Interpreter: 109, 136-137, 152, 171, 249.
Iroquois (tribe): 13, 18-19, 21, 67, 76, 356.
Irwin, Major Matthew: 63, 66, 73.
Irwin, Robert: 127, 168.

 

- J -
Jackson, President Andrew: 85-86, 106, 131, 140, 144, 150, 152, 154, 165.

Jahnkes: 113-114, 211-212, 223-224, 338-340, 353, 361-362, 370.
Jay's Treaty of 1794: 53, 68.
Jefferson, Thomas: 45, 47, 51, 53.
Jesuits: 13, 22, 71.
Johnson, John: 333, 350-351.
Jones, David: 119, 184, 186, 194, 197.
Judd, J.: 293.

 

- K -
Kane, Carol: 368,
Kenosha, Wisc.(Southport): 192, 196, 214-216.
Keshena: 189, 207, 234, 312.
Ketchums: 166, 191, 212-213.
Kinzies: 74-75, 100, 131, 136, 150-151, 205.
Kunzers: 351, 353.

 

- L -
Lafollette, Senator Robert: 355.
Lake Michigan: 8, 15, 45, 49, 102, 106, 143, 167, 193, 314, 333.

Lake Superior: 8, 13, 19, 23, 367.
Lake Winnebago: 21, 64, 70, 80, 134, 142, 145-146, 170, 234, 352.

Langlade, Charles de: 32, 36, 40-41, 55, 86.
Lapham, Increase: 181, 262, 265, 273-274, 276, 306-307, 357.
Lavaille, Joseph: 314, 325.
Lawe, John: 49, 52, 64, 67-69, 72, 104, 106, 110, 116, 172, 175, 182, 187.

Lead mining/ore: 32, 39, 46, 50, 93, 97, 100, 102, 126, 136, 149, 151, 162, 168, 181, 204.

Lease: 6, 66, 90, 93, 98-99, 102, 107-108, 111, 113, 121, 123, 140, 145, 160, 273.

Levenworth, J.H.: 262.
Liberia, Africa: 194-195.
Limestone: 8, 121, 144, 191, 273.
Linces: 261.
Lincoln, President Abraham: 237, 242, 251, 259, 298.
Little Kakalin: 63-64, 152.
Little Sturgeon (town of Gardner), Wisc.: 222, 227-228, 250, 262, 271-272, 280, 296-297, 301, 304, 310, 316, 350,

Little Suamico: 221, 223, 232, 239, 253, 256, 260, 281-282, 287, 290-291, 305, 307, 310, 325, 328, 330, 362, 364.
Livermores: 191, 348-349.
Logging Industry: 94, 109, 115, 167, 169, 175-176, 192, 194, 196-198, 214, 218, 221, 227-228, 236, 245, 277, 280, 296, 298, 303-304, 312, 321, 326-329, 339, 346, 357, 362.

Longries: 206.
Louisiana Purchase: 51.
Lovell, A.C.: 341.
Lumbering: 27, 72, 90-92, 94, 99-100, 102-103, 105-109, 113-115, 117, 120-122, 124, 148, 154-156, 159, 161, 165, 169, 199, 201, 211, 216-217, 223, 225, 228, 256, 262, 272, 281, 289, 298-299, 301, 303-304, 332, 335, 340, 346, 366.

Lurwick, George: 119, 177, 181, 183-187.

 

- M -
Machickanee Forest: 322, 359, 369.
Mackinac (boat): 100, 184.
Mackinaw, Mich.: 22, 58, 61-62, 88, 93.
Madison, President James: 66.
Madison, Wisc.: 117, 241-242, 255, 268.
Manitoo (or Manitou): 15-17, 21, 113, 163.
Manitowoc, Wisc.: 112, 145, 163-164, 168, 272.
Maple syrup: 71, 73-75, 89-90, 207, 234-235, 239.
Martin, Morgan L.: 162, 175.
Marriage: 90, 167, 210.
Marin, Joseph: 29.
Marin, Pierre Paul: 29.
Marinette, Wisc.: 117-119, 179, 190, 210, 218, 221, 239, 264, 288, 291, 302, 332, 360.

Marinette County: 72, 198, 239.
Massacre: 113, 150.
Mawmies (tribe): 42.
McCall, G.: 279.
McCall, Judge James: 82, 85, 131, 136-138, 148.
McCaul, Alex: 307-308.
McClure: 298.
McDermot, J.: 293.
McDouall, Robert: 59.
McGoverns: 283, 319, 321, 337.
McKay, Captain William: 57-59.
McKenney: Thomas: 50, 63-64, 67-68, 73, 95, 122, 127, 129.

McKinney, E.S.: 239, 255, 281.
McKinzie: 89.
McNeil, Colonel John: 84-85.
Menasha: 15, 127.
Menominee, MI: 70, 95, 259, 264, 275, 283, 287, 291-292, 326, 347.
Menominee Tribe (with various spellings): 12, 15-16, 19-21, 24, 30-31, 33-34, 36, 38-39-41, 46-47, 50, 52, 54-55, 57, 62, 64-65, 69-70, 73, 76-86, 90, 93, 95, 98-99, 107-108, 110-111, 114-116, 118-119, 121-131, 136-142, 144, 146-148, 150-155, 170-173, 188, 197, 200, 204, 206-207, 220, 233, 247-249, 266, 269, 274-275, 312-313, 341-342, 344-345, 355-356.

Metroves, John: 293.
Mexico: 12, 192, 194, 243.
Mercier, Ellis: 179.
Metis: 64, 66.
Metoxen, Loretta: 77, 159.
Meyer, Charles: 339.
Michigan: 40, 64, 67, 78, 91, 95, 105, 155, 169, 223, 258, 266, 269, 298, 367.

Michilimackinac Company: 46, 53.
Miller, William: 314.
Milwaukee, Wisc.: 89, 112, 117, 161, 169-170, 181, 192-193, 235, 239, 241, 248, 252, 280, 284, 335, 352, 364.

Minnesota: 247-249, 298, 349.
Minnick, B.E.: 239.
Missesogies Tribe: 42.
Missionaries: 18-22, 78, 80.
Mississippi River (and Basin): 9, 14, 23, 32, 36, 38, 42, 45, 48, 51, 86, 102, 117, 135-137, 148-150, 154, 170, 173, 243, 246, 336.

Moe, Jacob: 347.
Mohawk Tribe: 43.
Money/coinage: 69, 106, 109, 174, 242-243.
Monroe, President James: 67, 73, 79, 83.
Montreal: 19, 35, 53.
Morgan, Captain Lewis: 63.
Morgan, Wisc.: 276, 325-326, 339.
Muley saw: 118, 216, 260, 277.
Murder: 73, 111, 148, 180, 336-337.
Muskrat: 33, 72, 106, 183.

 

- N -
Navarino: 159, 184.
Neillsville, Wisc.: 118.
Neopit (Menominee): 312, 344.
New France: 15, 23, 32.
New York: 6, 53, 80, 94, 101, 139, 142, 144, 146, 168, 173, 181, 208, 211, 214, 218-219, 329.

New York Indians: 75-79, 81-86, 128, 130-131, 136-137, 141-144, 146-147, 151-153.

Nichols, Oliver P.: 174, 180, 187.
Nicolet, Jean: 15-18, 371.
NorthWest Company: 41, 46, 48-49, 53, 71.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787: 45, 104.

 

- O -
Oak Orchard: 145, 190-191, 202, 205, 218, 221, 253, 260, 281, 307, 309, 333, 341, 351, 359, 365.

Oconto County: 9, 72, 111, 120, 190, 197-198, 209, 212, 223, 231, 245, 250, 277, 288, 296, 326-327, 330, 333, 352, 360, 365.

Oconto County Drivers: 243, 252, 260.
Oconto County Sackers: 242, 245, 247, 250, 255.
Oconto Falls, Wisc.: 120, 335, 362.
Oconto River: 22, 64, 70, 111-112, 141, 144, 147, 184, 234, 312, 320.

Oconto, Wisc.: 16, 22, 70, 117, 119, 149, 175, 180, 183, 185, 195, 197, 203, 206, 210, 221-223, 229, 232, 239, 244, 246, 253, 256, 258, 260, 264, 266, 275, 279, 285, 290-291, 302, 307, 310-311, 318, 323, 326, 338, 360, 362.

Ogden Land Company: 77-78, 142.
Ogden, William B.: 77-78, 120, 140, 194, 258, 262-263, 268, 270, 295-296.

Ohio Company: 31.
Olsen, Johnny: 353.
Oneida (tribe): 73, 76-81, 83, 90, 93, 111, 114, 125-126, 133, 136-138, 140-144, 146, 150-151, 154, 156, 158-159-160, 167, 173-175, 187, 189, 207, 275, 288.

Osage (tribe): 42.
Oshkosh (Menominee): 54-55, 77, 82, 86, 93, 109, 122, 127-130, 138, 141, 151, 171-172, 189, 207, 220, 355.

Ottawa Tribe: 33, 40, 42, 153.
Outlaw/wild west: 267, 307.

 

- P -
Paquette, Moses: 154.
Passenger pigeon: 230, 332-333, 346, 359.
Pennsylvania: 6, 102.
Pensaukee (all spellings): 6, 14, 17, 26, 31, 40, 46, 48, 57, 62, 66-67, 69, 76, 87, 90, 92, 94, 103, 106, 111-112, 117, 119-120, 122, 126, 131, 145, 151, 154-156, 159, 161, 166, 172-175, 177, 181, 183-185, 190-192, 206, 208-209, 212, 214, 216-218, 220-222, 229, 231, 234, 238-241, 244, 251-256, 259-260, 262, 264, 266-267, 269-270, 273, 276, 278-279, 281, 283-285, 287, 290, 296-297, 301-302, 308, 310-311, 313-314, 316-319, 325-330, 332, 335, 339, 349, 352-353, 360, 362, 369-370.

Pensaukee River: 91, 94, 95, 97, 102, 108, 110-111, 114, 121-122, 124, 129, 144, 179-180, 187, 197, 216, 228, 234, 242, 261, 277, 319, 321, 329, 340, 366.

Perkins, Hardin: 117-118.
Perrot, Nicholas: 24-25.
Peshtigo, Wisc.: 70, 95, 112, 117, 119-120, 221, 234, 239, 248, 256, 260, 262-264, 266, 269-270, 275, 283, 287-288, 291-296, 302, 304.

Pike, Lieutenant Zebulon M.: 51-52.
Pine Ring: 274.
Pinkney, Colonel Ninian: 81, 84.
Pluker, Henry: 314.
Pollution: 6, 8, 261, 314, 351, 361, 369.
Pontiac's Conspiracy: 34.
Porlier, Jacques: 104.
Portage, Wisc.: 64, 74, 97, 101, 127, 131, 150, 162-163, 181, 193-195, 208-209.

Potatoes: 282.

Porter, Governor George: 140, 152-153, 155.
Post office/mail: 72, 175, 196, 202-203, 209, 222-223, 256-257, 277, 308, 324, 350, 353, 362, 369.

Potawatomi (tribe): 16-18, 20-21, 42, 59, 153.
Powell, George: 306.
Powell, Isaiah: 119-120, 175, 178, 181, 183-187.
Powell, John Wesley: 14.
Powell, Peter: 172.
Powles, Henry: 173.
Prairie du Chien, Wisc.: 23, 42, 48, 50, 57-59, 72, 86, 102, 117, 126, 130, 135, 148, 150.

Proclamation (Line) of 1763: 34, 36.
Prophetstown, Ind.: 54, 148.

 

- Q -
Quebec: 18, 34.
Quebec Act of 1774: 36, 38.
Queen City (boat): 222, 242, 246, 250, 271.
Quinney, John W. (Stockbridge): 140.

 

- R -
Radisson, Pierre Esperei: 18.
Railroad: 181, 258, 263, 268, 273, 275, 279-280, 283, 285, 288-289, 291, 295, 298, 301, 308, 314, 320, 329, 333, 339-341, 344, 347, 349, 351, 364, 366-367.

Red Bird's War: 126-127, 130-131, 136.
Republicans: 232-233, 235-237, 244, 251, 369.
Reynolds, Illinois Governor John: 126.
Rice, R.L.: 293.
Roads: 196, 216-217, 221, 223, 225, 228, 250, 254, 256, 258-259, 264, 269, 276, 280, 307, 338, 343, 364.

Robinsons: 329.

Rock River: 102, 148-149, 268.
Roosevelt, President Theodore: 201, 324, 357.
Ross, George: 293, 314.
Rouse, Lewis: 172.

 

- S -
St. Croix River: 13.
St. Lawrence Riverway: 15, 38, 101.
St. Louis, Miss.: 23, 32, 41-42, 55, 59, 89, 126.
St. Lusson, Sieur de: 22.
Sailboat: 32, 62, 100, 105, 166, 168, 218, 245, 272, 280, 334, 347, 350.

Santee Sioux (tribe): 247-249.
Sash saw, 120, 175.
Sauk (tribe): 21, 29, 34, 39, 41-42, 51-52, 55, 59, 136, 148, 150, 162, 165.

Sault Ste Marie: 18, 22.
Savage: 15, 20-21, 29, 37, 132, 235, 258.
Sawmill: 96, 100, 118, 147, 161, 166, 169, 175-176, 193, 202, 216, 266, 273, 275, 277, 287-288, 294, 317, 340-341;
Arndts: 6, 26, 65-66, 87-89, 91-92, 94, 98-99, 105-
107, 109-115, 121-129, 139-141, 143-144, 149, 159,
161, 167-168, 174-179, 202, 245
Franks: 50, 53, 64, 116
Gardner: 191, 195, 216, 222, 239, 250, 279-280, 285,
304-305, 307-311, 323, 325, 328
Grignon: 56, 63, 66, 116, 134, 145, 167
Holmes: 267, 277, 283, 289-290, 296, 311, 316
Little Sturgeon: 293, 305, 316
Mackinaw: 88, 116-117
Marinette: 118-119, 167, 169
Menominee: 207, 266, 312
Neopit: 356
Oconto: 119, 148
Oneida: 156-160, 167, 186-187, 270
Pensaukee: 179-181, 186-187, 254, 328-329
Peshtigo: 120, 262-263, 287
U.S.: 64, 133, 144.

Sawtell, W.H.: 204, 222.
Scofield, Charles: 239-240, 244, 253, 256.
Schoolcraft, Henry: 64.
Schooner: 61, 72, 93, 100, 105, 150, 166-167, 175, 177, 297, 301, 350.

Schuttas: 316.

Secession: 242-243, 250-252.
Secretary of War: 66-67, 77-79, 81, 122, 140, 143, 147, 149, 162.

Seelye, Eugene: 308.
Shaw, Colonel John: 116.
Sherman, Asa: 146, 161, 167.
Slaves/Slavery: 45, 48, 102, 155, 190-191, 195, 235, 237-238, 250-251, 299.
Smith, Captain Joseph Lee: 71.
Smith, John Y.: 146, 161, 167.
Snover, T.F.: 310.
Snyder, J.: 306, 309.
Soil erosion: 261-262, 306, 327, 332, 340, 363.
SouthWest Company: 53, 66.
Spain/Spanish: 31-32, 41-43, 48, 51.
Spear, Thomas: 271-272, 304, 316.
Spry, John: 215, 221, 271, 297.
Stage line: 223-225, 228, 239, 253-254, 259, 269, 290.
Stambaugh, Samuel: 112-113, 138-139, 141-143, 146-148-152, 154, 161.
Stark, Peter: 65, 115, 118, 125, 169.
Steamboat/ship: 81, 161, 167-168, 194, 222, 264, 278, 310.

Stephenson, Isaac: 194, 227, 271, 295, 332.
Stiles, Wisc.: 206, 221, 223-224, 230, 234, 239-240, 244, 253, 266, 283, 290, 302, 318, 364.

Strege, Covell: 365.
Strong, Moses: 112, 180.
Stuart, Robert: 106.
Sturgeon: 9, 18, 89, 183-184, 260, 273-274, 286, 325, 345, 348-349, 351.
Sturgeon Bay, Wisc.: 82, 95, 271, 279.
Stockbridge (tribe): 73, 76, 80, 83, 138, 148, 167, 275.
Suffrage (includes references to Negroes & Blacks): 102, 187, 190-191, 195, 210, 232, 242, 246-247, 250.

Survey (of land): 49, 72-73, 75, 95, 99, 105, 107, 122, 124-125, 144, 150-151, 155, 177-179, 196-197, 221, 229.

Susie's Hill: 119, 183.
Suamico: 58, 179-180, 209, 275, 287.
Swaers: 341, 346, 351-353.
Swamp, Adam (Oneida): 173.

 

- T -
Tauway (tribe): 42.
Taylor in Pensaukee: 154, 177, 179-180, 185, 187, 259, 277-279, 284.

Taylor, Zachary: 59, 69.
Tecumseh (Shawnee): 52-54, 57, 62.
Telegraph: 251, 280, 289, 291, 305, 311.
Telephone: 342, 348, 365.
Temperance Society: 95, 198, 232, 235.
Tension zone: 7, 14.
The Prophet (Shawnee): 52.
Tilton, Frank: 290, 293.
Tobacco (or smoking): 19, 193.
Tomau (Menominee): 52-55, 57, 77.
Topels: 333, 346, 348-349, 360.
Tornado: 276, 291-292, 317-321, 326-327, 339-340.
Trask, Isaac: 352.
Treaty of Greenville: 48.
Treaty of 1827: 126-128, 130.
Treaty of 1829: 131.
Treaty of 1831-32: 92, 139, 142, 147, 152-153, 155, 170-171.
Treaty of 1832: 151.
Treaty of 1836: 170-172.
Treaty of 1837: 173.
Treaty of 1838: 173.
Treaty of 1848: 189.
Treaty of 1854: 189, 206-207.
Trespass: 91, 99, 148, 189, 210-211, 226, 230.
Tug boat: 250, 263, 271, 304, 317, 319, 321.
Turnanoe, M.C.: 191.
Tuttle, S.: 306.
Twiggs, Colonel: 130.
Two Rivers, Wisc.: 164.

 

- U -
U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries: 273.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: 275.

 

- V -
Vamel, Yesel: 311.
Varleys: 320.
Varnum, J.B.: 53.
Vineyard, James: 180.
Volk, John: 120-121, 187.

 

- W -
Wabashaw Tribe: 51.
Wagner, Ella: 369.
War of 1812: 6, 54, 56, 64-65, 92.
Washburn, Benjamin: 308.
Washington DC/government/Congress: 47, 55, 66, 68-70, 73-74, 104, 106-107, 117-118, 123, 138-139, 143, 146-148, 151, 153-154, 162, 165-166, 173, 181, 188, 238, 274, 289, 301, 312-313, 326-328, 344-345, 356, 369.

Washington Island: 94.
Wave (Menominee): 84, 93.
Weather: 289, 292, 317, 322.
Wellingtons: 258, 260, 282, 309.
Wensing, John B.: 281, 347-348.
Westcott, Dick: 368.
Wheat: 57, 200-201, 206, 227, 258, 260, 277, 282, 325.
Wheelock, J.H.: 65.
Whipsaw: 50, 63-64, 72, 88-89, 98-99, 107, 117.
Whiskey/liquor/alcohol: 15, 19, 37-38, 43, 52, 68, 73-75, 77, 80, 87-89, 136, 149, 154, 165, 183-184, 198, 202, 204, 211, 232, 235, 237, 247, 257, 301, 307.

Whistler, Major: 103.
Whitcombs: 205, 241.
Whitneys: 239, 243, 261, 281, 288, 322, 324, 329.
Whitney, Daniel: 72, 92, 98, 163, 172, 194.
Williams, Eleazor: 71, 78-81, 84, 88, 93, 117, 133, 142, 159, 173, 182.

Williams, George: 162.
Williamson, Colonel David: 43.
Willington Cheese Factory: 325.
Wilsons: 252-253, 362.
Windrosses: 191, 202-203, 218, 221, 246, 253, 260, 267, 306, 314, 348.

Wisconsin Commissioners of Fisheries: 314.

Wisconsin River: 25, 29, 64, 91-92, 97, 100-102, 151, 162, 172, 193, 342.

Wolf River: 70, 95, 189, 234, 266, 342, 345.

 

- Y -
Yankee (doodles): 67, 95, 205, 282.
Yeatons: 204-205, 252-253, 255, 282.

 

- Z -
Zantas: 320.

Any Wiskonsinite will recognize this! This will be in the print edition but is not in the Kindle edition.
Becker, George C.  Fishes of Wisconsin.  Madison:  University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. Shows the land formation in Wisconsin due to glaciars. The activity is discussed in the book but I don't have use of this map there.

PENSAUKEE: Voice of a Landscape

Pensaukee was a village first for logging, and now for fishing, so the environmental evolutions of those two industries, with the fate of its early native occupation, are the focus of this book. You'll learn what went on in the area of Pensaukee when it was a Menominee village sitting neatly between Fort Michilimackinac and Green Bay. It becomes the site of the state's first sawmill through a lease for timber and from there its fate is sealed in controversy. Both famous and local names appear for their contributions to the area's history all the way to 1950.

 

While living in Abrams, Wisconsin and going for my bachelor's in history, I was asked to write the history of the area. I discovered that Abrams was once called West Pensaukee, and felt that made Pensaukee a better target for this kind of exploration. My independent study focused on this history, during which I uncovered the importance of sawmill there, and with some locals we got this on the Register of Historic Sites.

 

But I don't start there in the book. With the environmental disasters that occurred in Pensaukee since then, I felt it better to start where only Menominees lived in the area and trace this landscape starting with its archaeological records to demonstrate how this area changes when given over to the Europeans so we can see how the land begins to cry out for help as its big White Pine trees are felled. And they got big.

 

With all the research I'd done on the area, the book became an unwieldy 170,000 words. But I'd made it a compilation of all the research I'd done in the area, including the histories of the people I interviewed, the various adventures, I'd had with the research including my search for the biggest white pine in Wisconsin and comparisons to other sawmills around the state. Arndt himself had quite a history; he was on the first Green Bay committee to develop the portage between the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, so readers will also learn more about that area.

With my master's in history and development of other books, I gained the experience to hone the book down to its necessary parts, so as you'll see in the annotated table of contents, the book has a much clearer focus than it would have had otherwise.

 

Pensaukee's mill was connected to Green Bay via Arndt, and Chicago via its subsequent owner, so the exploration includes these areas where appropriate. F.B. Gardner made Pensaukee into a company lumbering town; it's been thought that the Peshtigo Fire started here. He also built the biggest hotel north of Milwaukee, which crumbled after a tornado swept the town away. After he died in Pensaukee's train station on the way back to Chicago, the itself crumbled, and now is just a sleepy fishing village on the bay. 

 

CHAPTER EXCERPT:

 

CHAPTER EIGHT

Enterprising Men in Wisconsin

 

In the creation of every township lies a single name -- or two. In Pensaukee's case, J.P. Arndt might never have had the first commercial sawmill west of the Great Lakes with Indian permission if not for the help provided by Ebenezer Childs, who's presence here we've already noted.

 

Originally from Worcester County, Massachusetts, Ebenezer Childs arrived in Green Bay in May of 1820 at the young age of 23, a carpenter by trade. Before long his reputation colored him as a man who stood no guff from anyone, white or Indian alike. He was with Arndt when Arndt tested the waters of the Army, but even before that, Childs defied army personnel by continuing to sell the soldiers liquor after being forbidden to do so:

 

I rented a store three miles above Fort Howard (in 1820), opened my goods and groceries and commenced trading. About that time a detachment of troops was sent to Green Bay to build another fort on the east side of Fox River, a short distance above where I was located. The soldiers were daily passing and re-passing from one garrison to the other; and would frequently call at my place and get something to drink. The officers finding it out, forbid the soldiers calling at my trading establishment.

 

A few days after, an officer called and inquired what I kept for sale? I replied that I kept all kinds of groceries and invited him to take a drink of good brandy. He did so. Then learning for a certainty that I kept liquor, he asked me if I sold any to the soldiers? I frankly confessed that I had done so, when he told me that I must not do so any more, and advised me to close up my business and leave the country, or I would be sent out.

 

I asked him who would send me out? He said that the commanding officer would. Mounting his horse, he still made use of abusive language. By this time my Ebenezer got up to the boiling point, when I sprang towards him with the intention of pulling him off his horse, and giving him a sound thrashing; but he was too quick for me, for he put spurs to his horse, and was soon out of my reach.

 

Childs was later apprehended by a sergeant and an escort of soldiers, but he declared the only way they would get him out of the country was to kill him. So they left him alone.

 

By way of punishment, (the commanding officer) issued an order forbidding me entering the fort – a thing I did not care to do. So the prohibition amounted to nothing. After that, the soldiers' wives would come and buy sugar of me, first carefully depositing a two quart canteen well filled with whiskey in the bottom of a large tin kettle, and packing the sugar on top, and smuggle it into the fort.

 

Childs was also not intimidated by Indians, and was probably Arndt's liaison with the Menominee. J.W. Arndt, who wrote about the family business in Green Bay, himself held a prejudice against Indians:

The cumulative qualities of these men perhaps has never been excelled; the exploration and settlement of a vast region of country inhabited by a wild, fierce race of savages, relentless in their hate to the white man, using every means in their power to drive back the incoming tide of this new race. Little by little the indomitable firmness, tempered by conciliation of these men, overcame the opposition of the savages.

 

The Scene on Arndt's Arrival

On Arndt's arrival, few sawmills were being utilized in the Green Bay area and both seemed to have been limited, whipsaw sites only. A.G. Ellis, Williams' companion in 1821, said, "Every point on the river bank was garnished with a huge windmill -- water-mills being unknown at that time is this part of the globe." The river Ellis mentioned is the Detroit River, which is farther east than the Fox River. A water mill was what Arndt built.

 

There was also a mill up at Mackinaw in Michigan, a reconstruction of which shows the use of a waterwheel, but they could not verify a date when it was used there; most likely it was not commercial. The guide at the site also demonstrated the use of the whip saw. Windmills, it has been determined, were used for grinding grain.

 

The supplies to set up a waterwheel sawmill were not that easy to come by. Here's how Frenchman went about getting a grindstone for his waterwheel sawmill when he could not read or write: Legault drew a circle on the supply order, and when the supplies arrived, a large round cheese was included. "I no ordered cheese, I order a grindstone," Legault complained. Then suddenly he saw his mistake, and grinning broadly, said; "Oh, I forgot to draw the hole."

 

Chicago in 1821 had only two families living outside the fort, McKinzie and Col. Beaubien. The same two families were still there when Childs drove cattle to Green Bay from St. Louis around 1826. Arndt's sawmill could be said to have supplied the lumber for the rise of both Chicago and Milwaukee.

 

Childs described the French families in the area of Green Bay when he first arrived. "They were all engaged in the Indian Trade under the American Fur Company, each cultivating a small quantity of land. Their manners and customs were of the most primitive character." Ellis described Childs: "he ran a career of considerable popularity; and could have shaken off the hydra (drink) that was devouring him, might have been one of our most honored pioneers. He would disrobe himself of his last coat and give it to a freezing Indian."

 

Childs noted the lack of modern conveniences such as yokes for oxen; instead they fastened sticks across the oxen's horns to draw by, and rope was made out of bark. Their ploughs were "uncouth, and so primitive in design that they could not plow within fifteen feet of their fences. "Their principle food was wild game, fish and hulled corn." Sturgeon and trout were caught in great numbers and they made immense quantities of maple sugar. The entire settlement would move to the sugar camps for two months of the year, "each family making eight or ten hundred pounds of the finest sugar I ever saw." They then put aside what quantity they needed to get through to the next spring and used the rest to trade.

 

Sometime in 1823 Arndt first visited Green Bay and liked it so much he decided to make plans to move there. Already he may have been thinking of different ventures than fur-trading, and it could have been during this visit that he saw the Pensaukee River, first met and learned of the Oneidas moving in, and first understood the growing need for lumber.

 

Childs found himself embroiled in a grand jury inquiry in 1824 under Judge Doty as to the state of persons living with women without the state of matrimony. Finding a resolution to this 'primitive state' of marriage here was to be Doty's first duty, which was "drastic and caused an immense amount of displeasure and dissatisfaction."

 

One can assume by Childs' account that these were all French and Indian residents. "The grand jury found 36 bills of indictment against inhabitants of Green Bay for fornication, and two bills for adultery … the Judge informed them that if they would get married within 10 days, and produce a certificate of that fact, they would not be fined." All complied but two. Their plea was that "they were legally married, had lived a great many years with their wives, and had large families of children – that their marriages had been solemnized according to the customs of the Indians. The court took a different view of the legality of those marriages and fined those two men fifty dollars each and costs."

 

 

Saving Boone: Legend of a Kiowa Son

Maybe his mother was crazy, but she didn't deserve to die. Boone runs off, only 12, vowing to kill his father. He is taken as a slave, but on escape finds a kindly German settler in Texas and a large lost chunk of gold in the river. Boone retrieves it for him.

 

This fate rewards Boone with the settler's disabled daughter, giving him, as his readings of Shakespeare remind him -- that he might fail of a right casket and woo the maiden -- finally giving Boone something to live for. But how will Emily take to his desire for revenge?

 

After returning from the War Between the States, he decides to give Emily what she wants to give him, even at her peril. Boone still needs to confront his father to learn the truth about his mother's death, but in his delay, finds he has to save his father first.

 

Follow Boone's adventures in the war-torn western US states between 1857 and 1872, to see how he comes to terms with being a "half-breed."  

 

Use the link below to purchase, or contact me for a signed copy.

Saving Boone: Legend of a Kiowa Son

Civil War & Bloody Peace: Following Orders

2nd Edition now available: Includes teacher's classroom guide, better analysis and a more dedicated index. The perfect book to learn how the Civil War impacted the Indian wars, the wild west, and Reconstruction, all the way to 1916.

Civil War & Bloody Peace: Following Orders

From Lincoln to Trump: a political transformation

Now in second edition! Includes a classroom guide and an index in the paperback version. Lots more materials, including an evolution of the political parties since Washington - You'll be interested to see the longevity of Democrats compared to those newcomer Republicans. Also finishes Trump's presidency by using his own words to show why our country is still so divided today. 

From Lincoln to Trump: a political transformation

Felling of the Sons

Ben Cartwright finds himself torn in three when a threat comes against all of his sons at the same time, as he struggles to stay within the law and yet protect everything he loves.  Using the famous burning map as cover and historical footnotes, the novel's backdrop with intense historical research includes page-turning action with cattle drivin', mining, timbering, land slidin', a house fire and even Hop Sing gets into the act at the shooting end of a rifle. With a little romance and some psychological drama, this western thriller shows how love of family can overcome all obstacles. Permission to published obtained from David Dortort, producer of the series, in 1996; the novel is now in 3rd edit.

 

AWARDS:

1ST PLACE, FANFIC CATEGORY, DIY AWARDS, LOS ANGELES, 2007.

CLARA AWARDS, 2ND PLACE WESTERN, 2006.

 

Reviews:

"I VERY HIGHLY (HIGHLY, HIGHLY) RECOMMEND Felling of the Sons to every Western genre enthusiast, especially those that hold Bonanza in high-esteem.—Patricia Spork, Reviewer, ebook Reviews Weekly.

Felling of the Sons

Mystic Fire: A Bonanza/Civil War Novel

Set in 1862, with historically recreated characterizations of Lincoln and Mark Twain. See a realistic way in which the Civil War could have torn the Cartwrights apart.

Mystic Fire: A Bonanza/Civil War Novel

Dancing With Cannibals

A co-authored work, using the historical research of a native of the Congo, and current South African resident.  REVIEW: "Jean's story on the other hand allows one to see the conditions in the Congo and how life for the natives deteriorated in order to satisfy Belgium's greed. It's an intriguing look into a different time."

Dancing With Cannibals

CHAPTER ONE

The Wishing Rock

 

Kansas 1857

Lynelle Tyler wiped sweat from her face as she worked her garden. The sudden sound of galloping hooves froze her there in the dirt, fingers clawing soil. "No! Please!" Breath held, she didn't move until the sound of hooves faded off again. The Missouri Regulators, most likely. They passed by regularly and never bothered her. They wanted Kansas to enter the Union as a slave state, though most living here were in favor of staying a free state. 

Yet whenever she heard horses, the thought of her Kiowa husband coming for her son Boone had her crying with fear.

 

She loved Kae-Gon. But she feared allowing Boone to live in his world. She could not erase this love embedded in her heart since before Boone was born in December 1844. But she could not allow Boone to live in a culture her father predicted was doomed.

 

Kae-Gon told her once that he must take Boone before he turned 13, only two months from now. She would die first.

Boone knelt behind his mama in his potato garden and saw her wipe at her tears. She looked so small and vulnerable in her garden world. Boone knew she cried for his father. She told him the story once of how her father, General William Tyler, attacked Kae-gon's village to get her back. "Let my father move in with us," Boone asked many times.

 

"He cannot leave his people," she responded just as often.  

 

Boone knew the story of how his parents met. In a river, swimming. "He was so gentle. He knew some English and I knew some signing. He came to see me every day, and finally, I left my home for him. I lived in his village, and we married in their ceremony. One day my father came to get me … oh, all those beautiful people he killed. All my fault!" She told him that story nearly every month -- as though a fairy tale that needed retelling. "You must always stay white," she told him, with her eye on the horizon. "The way of life for his people will be destroyed. Promise me, Boonie."

 

Boone promised never to go with his father. His mother needed him. But he knew Kae-gon wanted to teach his son to be a man.

 

When he saw she was about done, he grabbed his bag and ran into the house with his small sack of potatoes. He had sprawled out on the dirt floor, picked up his etching stick, and appeared busy drawing pictures when she came in. His tousled black hair was still coated with the sand and sweat from the morning's chore, potatoes stashed near the cellar door.

 

"Where's my vagabond mama been this time?" He took to calling her vagabond because she often wandered off for hours at a time. There were many words he loved and used from his Shakespeare readings. You are a vagabond and no true traveler.

 

She smiled at her lanky son deep in concentration, one foot kicking up small dry dust clouds behind him. "Boone Tyler, did you check your garden yet?" Boone looked like his father except for the freckles on his small nose and flecks of green in his brown eyes. The whites called him a "half-breed," and she feared he would grow unable to live in either world. But she often reminded him that the world will treat him according to his own behavior.

 

"Look, Mama, the horse is running free as the wind. And I drew me over here, so that it runs to me."

 

"The garden, Boone. After dinner I will listen to the newest Greek fable you learned, and then you can pick the Shakespeare story for us to act out." Lynelle had sent him to that Leavenworth school for a few years, but when they forced him to sit in the corner against the wall so that no one would worry about being scalped, she pulled from school. She taught him herself -- math, reading, and all the great literature she could find. She even taught him the art of dramatics as they read Shakespeare aloud.

 

"It is a shame my twin brother died. You would not always need to entertain me."

 

Lynelle grabbed him, yanked him to his feet, and threw him outside. Without a word. He got to his feet and brushed off, not surprised by her sudden moods.

 

He peeked in the window.

 

She was on her knees, staring down at the dirt floor, her hands pulling at her hair. "Booonnnieeeee!"

 

He ran back in and sat by her, and she held him with trembling arms. "How did you know? No, no, don't answer that. Answer that you love me. That you love our home. Tell me, Boonie!"

 

"I love you, Mama. I will tell you about Heracles, who killed the monstrous lion that threatened the village." He felt her nod against his chest as she pulled him tight again.

 

"I have a hard time keeping that stone fireplace lit, and our eating table wobbles."

 

Boone knew, because she told him once, that his twin brother had died at birth. Why couldn't she talk about him?

She sniffled and wiped her nose on her sleeve. "Boone, why are you sitting here? I told you, git. Harvest your garden."

 

"I already picked all my potatoes for today." He pointed toward the corner.

 

"Don't fool me. Those are yesterday's potatoes. Now do as I say! You will tell your story of Heracles at supper." She got up to stir the beans.

 

"You won't eat without me, will you? Your baking smells good today."

 

"Oh, and what day doesn't it?" The small shack had filled with the smell of Boston brown bread, cornmeal and rye steamed in molasses. "If you don't get out there, those potatoes will pack their bags and leave."

 

"Oh, Mama, that's such a tall one." Boone looked down at what he drew -- a kind of half-circle with an odd design inside. "I don't think they are ready today. But I will look. And one day, you'll see that I'm old enough to do my work without being told."

 

He jumped up and ran out before she could rap his head with her sticky wooden spoon.

 

*

 

Boone walked back to his potato garden, but his thoughts were on the design he'd just created in the dirt, like a brand on that horse he drew running free in the wind. He didn't know what that drawing was, a kind of crescent moon with an arrow by it. Even if his mama swept up his dirt, as she kept trying to do to keep the dirt floor clean, he would not forget his symbols. He would run free someday, too, on his own horse.

 

"Watch da path, your feet, Tadpole."

 

"Oh!" Boone almost ran into Jack -- Big Grizzly, he was called. Jack lived in a shack up on the hill. He moved from the Dakotas when a tribe of Lakota had grown too familiar for his own comfort. "Sorry!" Boone backed away as though repelled by something foul.

 

Jack had on his plain buckskin coat, not the fringed one that Boone admired. He kept his ball and powder six-shooter tucked in the pants that he kept roped tight, and the tail of his fox hat bobbed as he laughed at the boy. "Hey, Tadpole, no hurry, earth still be here, another day yet."

 

"Gotta find me some potatoes now!" Boone ran from Jack as though he had twenty things to do. Big Grizzly Jack frightened him, but Boone didn't understand why.

 

He felt Jack's eyes on him as he dug into the earth for a spud or two he might have missed. Jack seemed like a friend, and somehow not.

 

*

 

Lynelle walked out and stood beside Big Grizzly as the boy bent over his garden.

 

"He's of ripenin' age, Lynelle."

 

"I know. I worry what will happen to him if there's war like they keep talking. To protect slavery," she said as though the words tasted dirty.

 

"You have more war in your heart. Talk on him his papa." An old French fur trapper, Jack hung onto his bad English like a lifeline to the Old World.

 

"Oh, I already told him everything." She wrapped her arms around herself and rubbed hard. "He's not going to find any more potatoes today."

 

"Time to treat him like man he is become."

 

"No!  He can't grow up. Ever. Come on, have some coffee with me."

 

That first day they met, a year ago, he had been out trapping, suspecting he could catch a family of muskrats down near the river. He came upon her crying over an empty bucket.

 

"I caught no fish. My line got away from me." She had that habit of wiping her face with dirty hands, causing streaks that looked like war paint. "We'll just have to make more bread."

 

Jack reached into his pocket. "Here."

 

Her hand trembled as she reached out. "What is this?"

 

"Smoke it myself. Raccoon meat."

 

Lynelle nodded and tucked it in her apron pocket.

 

"It ain't much. Traps tomorrow might fill. Meet you here?"

 

"Oh, no!  I couldn't!" She ran from him at that first meeting, leaving Jack scratching his beard.

 

Later that same day she found Big Grizzly and Boone standing in the river, though not close, watching each other's fishing lines. Boone listened as Jack told him about the fine art of catching those nibblers. She learned later that Boone had been too terrified of him to move. Now Boone could catch fish with his bare hands but still didn't cotton to Big Grizzly much. She hoped he would once the size difference lessened. His father was so much taller than any white man she knew and Boone fast approached that stature.

 

Jack grunted a happy thanks for the coffee offer and they went inside.

 

"You ever have children, Big Grizzly?" She got the water pot on the fire and took out a shiny knife to start chopping vegetables.

 

"Seen plenty half-breed. Not have my own but marry plenty Indian woman too." He used the term half-breed with respect. "When I teach you boy to trap last week he give me gift." Jack slapped a rock down on her table. "He calls it wish rock and say he wish for you to let him meet his papa."

 

Lynelle grabbed the table for support. "No."

 

"You love dis Indian papa. Your boy should love him, too."

 

"Why did he give the rock to you?"

 

"He say not good rock. Wish not come true."

 

Lynelle picked up the simple piece of granite with what looked like an etched 's'. "Some wishes aren't meant to come true."

 

"Kiowa are not—."

 

"I don't want Boone to die!" Lynelle looked back over her shoulder to make sure Jack hadn't disappeared before dumping her carrots in the steaming pot. Jack put one leg up and easy over the other and, with his nose in the air, appreciably smelled the bread. She poured him the coffee and added sugar. "Would you like to stay on? For supper?" She thought about having Jack over more often, maybe suggest he use some lye in his wash and perhaps give himself a shave. She picked out a few potatoes to chop.

 

He grunted. "Tell me about why you fear Kae-gon."

 

"He found me two years after Boone's birth. Said he would come for Boone when the boy was 12. Came again a few more times, just so I wouldn't forget. Boone will be 13 in the snows of December." She whipped the knife into the potatoes, unable to meet Jack's eyes.

 

"Not bad he meets his Papa. Give boy's papa a listen."

 

Lynelle slammed the knife down. "He said take!" She paused to catch her breath. "Boone's only chance is in the white world. Oh, Jack, you can see that, can't you?"

 

"Sound like you listen to white folk too much." Jack sipped at the dark liquid. "I believe tribes will keep own land. Your son can talk Indian to whites. He can heal both worlds—."

 

"My son is no savior!" Lynelle covered her eyes for a second and looked at Jack with fierce determination. "I will protect my son. With my life I will."

 

He patted her hand. "Dis is good, your feelings. Dey yours, so good. But boy must know. Protect him, but he must know what you protect."

 

"Jack, do you think there will be war? Out east?"

 

"War is already here until they settle this thing." Only the week before a few of the Regulators tried to string him up for calling them "slavers." But Jack beat two of them senseless before the rest ran off. "You not worry. I let no one hurt you. Or the boy."

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

The General

 

Boone stood near the door of the squat little shack and flicked at clumps of dirt hanging on his knees and elbows, unable to look at Jack when he came out.

 

"Got some good potatoes?" Jack stayed back, respectful of the boy's space.

 

Boone held one out, and then two. "For you."

 

"Day's good ones. I tank you." Jack pocketed them and followed as Boone headed for the river to wash up. "Your mama not sure how to tell you about life. You must learn to ask."

 

Boone splashed water on his arms, the chill of autumn making his hairs raise. "What Mama and I talk about is none of your bloody affair." Arms wet and still half muddy he jumped to his feet and started up the hill with his empty sack.

 

Jack grabbed his arm. The big man's face was the grizzly that chased him in his nightmares. "You getting to be a man. You have right to know your papa."

 

Boone jerked his arm free. "Why do you care, anyway?"

 

Jack only shrugged and walked back to his mule to drink water from his jug.

 

Boone ran back up the hill. "Mama!" He ran into the shack. "What you got to tell me?"

 

Lynelle was on her hands and knees, digging in the dirt floor. She looked up, hair half covering her wild eyes as she patted the dirt. "Oh, Boonie."

 

"You gonna grow something in here for me to weed now?"

 

"Come here and sit on the floor beside me." She patted down the dirt long after it needed patting. With a gentle hand she traced the dirt on his face. "Your father used to rub dirt on my face so the whites would not take me away."

Boone sat next to her. "Does Papa hate us? Is that why he won't live with us?"

 

"I promise you, your father does not hate us." Lynelle wiped the tears from her face and with the same hand wiped the dirt on Boone's face, creating streaks on his cheeks. "Your father is the son of a Kiowa leader, keepers of the medicine. Boone, as much as I loved your father, I wasn't strong enough to live with him."

 

"What did you bury in the floor, Mama?" He didn't like secrets. Mama once said secrets, like badgers, can bite.

 

"Boone, I will sleep outside tonight, and tomorrow we'll make a new bed for you."

 

"Why?"

 

She gave him a quick hug. "Tell me why you don't like Big Grizzly."

 

"There's something bad about him. Something quiet and dark."

 

"Your mama needs a man in her life."

 

"Not him. Papa."

 

"Oh, Boone."

 

"Tell me why Papa won't live here."

 

She kissed his head and stood. "If you were a girl, your father would have left you alone. You remember when I told you about the Cherokee? About how they had a great home back east and learned to adapt to white civilization, and yet were still forced to leave? Indians don't understand how whites own the land. We see it … I mean, the Kiowa see it as providing the resources needed to survive. No one should be allowed ownership over survival." She stood and threw wood on the fire still burning strong. "Boone, how can I explain how I feel? The Kiowa … can't hold off a whole country wanting their land. If you live with the Indians, you will die with them. And your father will never leave his people."

 

"But I can help them talk to whites. Even Jack says so."

 

She shook her head. "Do you remember the story of Jesus on the cross?" She checked her bread cooking on the stove. "You are not a savior. Don't ever get that complex."

 

"Did you love my Pa?"

 

"I did, Boone. But I had to choose." She threw her arms around him. "Promise you'll stay in the white world and be safe. Promise me, Boone!"

 

"I'd never leave you, Mama."

 

She looked out the window, suddenly startled. "Shhhhh!" Lynelle pointed at the bed in corner. "Hide. I hear a noise." Years of training made Boone respond without question. He hid under the buffalo skin while she ran outside.

 

Sun Hero was his favorite Indian story … hide until the time to come out and shine. But how to know when to be a hero? Boone wondered as he fell asleep hiding.

 

*

 

"Mama, I had a new dream last night." Boone had found a round piece of rubber that he worried between his palms as Lynelle finished cooking the oatmeal with maple syrup, his favorite breakfast. Boone thought that's all she ever did -- try to find a way to keep him fed.

 

"What this time? Fire monsters that fly and eat the rolling fire horses? I wish you would learn to start a fire as well as you dream it."

 

"At first I was alone and screaming because I was cold. But then so many warm hands surrounded me and as they clapped, the air around me warmed, and I floated on a cloud. The cloud turned dark and stormy but I wasn't afraid because you held me up, and Papa held you up, and even though the ground began to tremble we weren't afraid."

 

Lynelle stood frozen as she stared outside. "Boone! Get to your feet!"

 

"No, Mama. My dream said to be a man and protect you."

 

"I said get to your feet! Go out the window by the bed, go out the window and run." She pulled him away from the table and pushed him to the bed. "Run like you never ran before and don't look back, do you hear? Don't look back!"

 

Boone pushed the tarp aside but hesitated. "I want to stay."

 

Lynelle gave him a shove and he rolled out the window onto the hard ground below. At first he couldn't get up because the air had poofed out of him. He heard the sounds of many horses and the shouts of men, words he could not make out. He crept up along the house and peeked into the window.

 

Five Indians had come inside and faced his mama but she stood them off, yelling at them in return, her knife clutched tight in her hand. The tallest had a hand on her arm and seemed to be trying to gentle her. Boone ducked back down, thinking. Mama still loved Kae-gon. If he left them alone, maybe she'd find a way. Why rebuke you him that loves you so? 

 

He turned and ran, down through the fields and up another hill to Big Grizzly's house but couldn't bring himself to go inside. Instead he ducked inside the small shed where Jack's mule lodged in bad weather. He huddled himself tight, not dressed to be outdoors. If only his grandfather had never interfered.

 

He remembered the move across the Mississippi when he was two … the big waters -- the big river, his mama called it … wider than any river young Boone had ever seen. He clung to his mama's leg in fear. His grandfather, General Tyler, barked orders at the three men who followed them everywhere. Boone hated those men because they tried to get between him and his mama. The men got out their axes to fell some trees for a raft, but then they saw a keel-boat headed across the river toward them.

 

Boone kept saying, "No water, no water!" so General Tyler picked him up and threw him into the river. Lynelle screamed but a soldier covered her mouth as Boone thrashed around. He managed to dog paddle back to shore. Not very far, really, before Boone found land under his feet again.

 

The General laughed and pointed, a hand holding back one of the men who wanted to go in after the boy. "Told ya. Part animal."

 

Lynelle ran to Boone when he got to shore, careful not to sound frightened. By the time she stripped him down he was laughing. "See me, Mama, see me?"

 

Lynelle found an oversized shirt for him to wear until his clothes dried. "You'll be a great swimmer someday, Boone." Boone nearly went back into the river on her encouragement but she held him back, laughing and crying at the same time.

 

The keel-boat got close enough for the boatman to call out, "Engagee?"

 

The General grumbled. "Shoot, it's a Frenchie. Anyone know any?"

 

"I know a little," Philip, his tall soldier, stepped forward, and using French said, "Across the river. You take us."

Boone and Lynelle emptied the wagon that would be left behind, to be used by someone who crossed from the other side.

 

"Oh. Oui. Cost you," Frenchie nodded as Philip interpreted.

 

"Huh, I understood that much," said the General. "What's your price?"

 

"One horse."

 

"One horse!" The General turned and waved at his adjutant. "Give him that rangy mule." He turned back. "Ask him if he wants it in the keel-boat."

 

Turned out he didn't. Frenchie gave a wave of his own and two Indians ran out. They grabbed the offered mule and ran off.

 

"You are good company!" Frenchie shouted in English. He waved them on board but not all their goods would fit. They tied some to the horses that would be pulled along behind to swim over. Halfway over Frenchie decided to demonstrate the sturdiness of the boat by making it sway while talking nonstop in French. When he got a little too close to Lynelle she gave him a shove and he tumbled backward with the swaying, right into the river.

 

While the men struggled to get him back on board, Boone and Lynelle clung to the side.

 

"Mama, am I a good swimmer now?"

 

"Not yet, Boone. But don't worry, you won't drown. You'll be a great man someday."

 

Once across they all leaped out, pulled their horses up to shore and ran up the hill without a look back, leaving the extra goods on the boat. Up, up a hill, they stumbled on rocks and caught shoes in the shrubbery, better at first than being on the water but soon Boone thought he would go crazy from being tired, cold and always wet, first from river, then from rain. They found no wagons this side of the river, which meant just to keep running and sometimes share a horse, but they finally found the fort and the general got them all more horses to ride.

 

But Grandpa didn't want this fort. Boone remembered how the wagon trail they got on sometimes disappeared, like a hole had opened up and swallowed it. "Will it swallow me?"

 

"No, Boone, not you. You are meant for better things."

 

The trees slapped him like he said a bad word and every few minutes he thought he heard the hoot of an Indian.

"Owl, Boone," Lynelle reminded him. "Would you like to hear a story, Boonie?"

 

"Yes, tell me why you're so afraid."

 

"Oh, let's save that for after I'm gone."

 

Boone didn't want Jack's help. He didn't want Jack telling them she would feel better if she had a man. Boone would remind Big Grizzly that she has her son -- that her son was a man.

 

That day would be tomorrow. For now, he curled up under the standing hay, to wait for his mama to come and get him.