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A Life of Research

Emmett Till and the Beloit Migration Project

Emmett Till was a loving 14-year-old son of a single mom who was lynched during a friendly visit to some cousins in Mississippi. Emmett was born in Chicago in 1941. His mother, Mamie Till-Bradley, was born in Webb, Mississippi, and her family moved her to Illinois in 1923 during what was called the Great Migration, an exodus of blacks from the South. According to the movie, Till, his mom raised him to have no fear of whites, but she was afraid of him making this trip with his uncle and cousin. The whites of Mississippi didn't act like those in Chicago. What if he didn't say 'yes sir' enough or looked at a white woman the wrong way? He assured her he understood, but he was all of 14, where a boy's libido often outpaces his maturity.

 

My new project is this same period of time as transcriber of the oral Beloit Migration Project. I transcribed the stories of 14 old residents interviewed back in 1976, who were recruited from Pontotoc, Mississippi to work in Beloit, Wisconsin, not far from Chicago. Many of them came through Chicago to get here, and some stayed there instead. I checked each one to see if any of them had responses to this boy's murder in 1955 and found nothing. The first sign of protests for any of them was a later reaction to Martin Luther King.

 

Mamie had an open casket funeral in Chicago to show the world what they'd done to her son, and neither man was convicted in trial by white-man jury down there. But this event kick-started what was already simmering, a civil rights movement, and Mamie was an early outspoken leader. Because of Till's death, Rosa Park refused to move to the back of the bus. She was subsequently arrested for violating Alabama civil laws, and the NAACP decided that this case needed national-wide attention. This led to bus boycotts, and a federal lawsuit ruling that this segregation violated the 14th Amendment.

 

The 1987 Eyes on the Prize, a 14-hour Emmy award-winning documentary, began with the murder of Emmett Till. Accompanying written materials for the series, Eyes on the Prize and Voices of Freedom (for the second time period), exhaustively explore the major figures and events of the Civil Rights Movement. Stephen Whitaker states that, as a result of the attention Till's death and the trial received,

 

Mississippi became in the eyes of the nation the epitome of racism and the citadel of white supremacy. From this time on, the slightest racial incident anywhere in the state was spotlighted and magnified. To the Negro race throughout the South and to some extent in other parts of the country, this verdict indicated an end to the system of 'noblesse oblige.' The faith in the white power structure waned rapidly. Negro faith in legalism declined, and the revolt officially began on December 1, 1955, with the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott.[40]

 

Here's what I learned at one of the links I used:

 

"Although the modern civil rights movement was well underway before Emmett Till's murder, Mamie Bradley's refusal to let that crime be covered up brought renewed urgency and resolution to the movement. With Mamie Bradley by his side, Randolph proposed a march on Washington to demand action from the federal government to protect black citizens from the kind of violence that had taken Till's life. Such a march did take place, as did several others, eventually culminating in the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom where the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. Passage of the Civil Rights Act soon followed."

 

A. Philip Randolph is one of the leaders I discovered while writing "From Lincoln to Trump." He organized a March on Washington in 1941 to demand that FDR provide equal treatment in employment. All FDR could do to prevent the march was to bar discrimination in businesses that held federal contracts. It was a start. Randolph also organized the march in 1963 where Martin Luther King gave his "I have a dream" speech, a march organized for both freedom and opportunity. This was held the year after the US Supreme Court demanded that the University of Mississippi open its doors to its first black college student, James Meredith.

 

The book I'm working on, "20th Century Black Experiences: A Beloit Case Study" will cover their responses to issues such as why the migration happened, and all the responses raised before the 1965 Civil Rights Act, and continue to the reality of 1976 and why Emmett Till was no longer being remembered in those communities as the pivotal act that awakened a nation.

 

Till is the name of a recent movie depicting Till's mother's journey for justice for her son. Her voice became the voice of the Civil Rights movement and yet King's name is the one we think of first. King's name is the one first mentioned by the black Beloit respondents as informing their desire to resist racism in their area, bringing it to the forefront of their minds, too. Not Till's murder.

 

What do they remember of that period of time that led up to the killing of Emmett Till? What was the reality of the black migration in the first half of the 1950s that made Mamie Bradley afraid to send her son back to Mississippi? Why, in Chicago, did she raise her son to have no fear of whites? These are many things my full book project will explore.

 

Chicago was both boom and bust to these 14 respondents, two of which were white. Here are some of their comments about Chicago memories:

 

"I know once he got laid off and he went in to Chicago. These brothers had him to come into Chicago. They were going to try to get him a job there. And my mother went over there and she said no, I'm never moving to Chicago. I'll never take my children to Chicago. I don't know whether it was the crowd or the apartments, and she just wasn't used to no city like Chicago.  That was, of course, in 1921 or '22."

 

Mamie's family, too, settled in a small town outside of Chicago, and she then moved and raised her son in Argo, Illinois.

 

"Said they used to tell some very tough stories about Chicago. Get up there and they tell it to you, and in fact, the average black man didn't want to come to Chicago. They say, well, sir, you get up there, you're liable to fall on a pit, they drop you down there and make medicine out of you."

 

There was a paper they referred to called the Chicago Defender that many of them subscribed to. For the book, I'll find out more about it. I'll also want to check the newspapers in this area to see what kind of reporting was done on Till's murder here. Is it possible they thought he brought it on himself?  Here's some comments that indicate that possibility:

 

"always use your manners, boy. It'll carry you a long ways." I can remember him saying those things to me. He said, "It don't hurt to say yes and no sir." He says, even to the other ones, because he said someday they'll be saying that back to you. And you'll be liking it. So he said, and so that was impressed upon me there. So I still to this day still hear that answer, yes sir and no sir, don't hurt you."

 

"Said it even more, in other words, the whites didn't want the blacks to come north … they wanted them down on that farm.  To work those fields … because later on, when I went back to Mississippi – I believe it was 1937, the job that the Negroes was doing when I left from down there, such as grading the roads and building the good roads and getting around there. When I went back there in 1937 the white men were doing those jobs."

 

We can guess even in 1955 there was a lot of resentment in the South toward blacks who were living better in the North. Emmett's only real crime had been to call a white woman fine looking. He never even touched her, but she got offended and she let her white men know about it.

 

"But you see, the main thing in the south, especially around in the State of Mississippi or Arkansas, Tennessee, and Alabama, Georgia, they're getting down there, although the Negro had been set free, as far as slavery was concerned. But he was governed. First of all, they wouldn't give you a job that you'd make anything, you know. You didn't have a decent house to live in."

 

But even in the north they faced continuing racism:

 

"Well, because a black man was qualified to do the job, and yet they wouldn't put him on it."

 

"But you ask in Mississippi they say you go to the back door, you get it, you get served. They serve you at the back door, give you all you want to eat. But they didn't tell you nothing in Beloit. They just said we don't serve you. That's all."

 

"You just couldn't get anything. You go to a restaurant, you couldn't, they said we don't serve colored people."

 

And yet they decided to recruit workers like yourself from Mississippi. Do you know why? 

 

"Cheap labor. Cheap labor."

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History Lesson 01: Women's Suffrage

Did you know that the first movement to get women the right to vote was in 1848? That's even before the Civil War! On July 19th the Women's Suffrage movement was launched in Seneca Falls, New York. Lucretia Mott was a Quaker and Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a young mother. They wanted to be included in the Constitution's "All men are created equal."

 

What else was happening in 1848 that might have spurred this action? Europe's most radical revolution happened, which sent many people to the USA, including a great-grandfather of mine from Germany, not then called Germany. Workers were on the uprise around Europe. This revolution included a series of political upheavals. Closer to home, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo gave the US a lot more territory, most specifically in the Southwest. The California gold rush began.

 

Possibly as a result of their early efforts, the first medical school for women opened in Boston later that year, or certainly coincidental and perhaps stirring them for more of the same.

 

But these women weren't initially successful. There were disagreements over what they should be fighting for. Stanton wanted the vote immediately but others thought that was a little too radical. They finally agreed to add suffrage when Frederick Douglass spoke in support of it.

 

Stanton met Susan B. Anthony in 1850 and the two forged a lifetime alliance. Little was found about their efforts before the Civil War but afterward, they helped the movement build and pushed lawmakers to protect their rights during Reconstruction.

 

I've often thought that the 15th amendment that guaranteed voting rights to "all persons born or naturalized" should have automatically included women but the wording elsewhere in the amendment defined citizens as male. Petitions then began to fly in objection to that word, deliberately excluding them. George Washington Julian of Indiana proposed in December 1868 than the reference to male be removed, but it never even came to a vote.

 

One would like to think this reference to woman's suffrage was extended to black women as well. Stanton denounced this extension of voting rights to black males while excluding "educated white women." This is where black women felt alienated, and that animosity extended into the 20th century. Obviously, Stanton didn't choose her words well.

 

But black voices were not silent. They simply had other fights, such as Jim Crow. In an 1898 address to the NAWSA, African-American activist Mary Church Terrell decried these injustices, while remaining hopeful "not only in the prospective enfranchisement of my sex but in the emancipation of my race."

 

The women's movement fragmented into two groups in 1869: Stanton and Anthony's the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA). Lucy Stone formed the other; she was a one-time Massachusetts antislavery advocate and a prominent lobbyist for women's rights. The groups united in 1890. That's when they formed NAWSA. But they were without powerful allies in Congress. For the next 20 years they worked for voting at the state level.

 

In 1869 Wyoming became the first to grant women the right to vote, the only one for the next 25 years. Colorado followed in 1893, with Utah and Idaho in 1896. Some believe it was to encourage more women to move west. Others saw women as being equally as strong as men. A third reason was to help the territory gain statehood. Wyoming, however, didn't get statehood until 1890 and remains one of the lowest population states in the Union, even lower than the current population of DC. Seven more states granted women voting rights between 1910 and 1914.

 

The impact of Jeanette Rankin as the first Congresswoman elected in Montana in 1916 cannot be overstated. She turned out to be a great orator and led successful campaigns for women's suffrage. The first day of the new Congress, with herself installed as Congresswomen, she introduced the Susan B. Anthony Suffrage amendment. California Democrat John Edward Raker proposed a new standing committee in the House—the Committee on Woman Suffrage—to consider bills related to women's voting rights, bypassing Judiciary entirely.

 

"We have as a Member of this body the first woman Representative in the American Congress," Edward William Pou of North Carolina said to applause. "She will not be the last, Mr. Speaker."

 

Raker's Woman Suffrage Committee began hearings on the voting-rights amendment on January 3, 1918. Well, you can imagine the excitement of the women, who brought sandwiches to hearings.

 

Rankin began by invoking the generations of American women who had fought for the right to vote. "For 70 years the women leaders of this country have been asking the Government to recognize this possibility," she said. She even invoked the name of Harriet Beecher Stowe, as though to make up for Stanton's mistakes decades previously. Stowe was a white abolitionist, however.

 

Opponents were, of course, feeling their status quo threatened. Federal suffrage would violate the state's rights to determine voter qualifications. Suffrage was not a "right," they said, but a privilege, to be withheld at the pleasure of the state. (Oh are we seeing evidence of that today!) Southern legislatures opposed it because it included black women -- all the more they would have to fight to keep away from the polls.

 

One Suffragette named Carrie Chapman Catt even used white supremacy to help the amendment get through: "If the South is really earnest in its desire to maintain white supremacy, its surest tactics is [sic] to endorse the Federal Suffrage Amendment." She continued, "If you want white supremacy, why not have it constitutionally, honorably? The Federal Amendment offers the way."

 

The first vote on the amendment was narrowly defeated, even though Woodrow Wilson supported it. Then came midterm elections when the Republicans ran on suffrage as a means to defeat the Democrats, especially in the South. Jeanette Rankin, however, lost her seat in that election.

 

The 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote on August 18, 1920.

 

Despite the passage of the amendment and the decades-long contributions of Black women to achieve suffrage, poll taxes, local laws and other restrictions continued to block women of color from voting. Black men and women also faced intimidation and often violent opposition at the polls or when attempting to register to vote. It would take more than 40 years for all women to achieve voting equality.

 

The NAWSA prevented black women from attending their conventions. They had to march separately from whites in suffrage parades. But these women worked hard for those equal rights, too, and received little credit. Much of their activity centered around their churches, where they held political rallies and planned strategies. They faced unique challenges, being torn between the civil rights of the two groups to which they belonged, and being excluded by white women did not help.

 

This is an issue that may have lingered yet today. When there was a woman's march in Madison in 2017, I saw very few blacks in the crowd, even though Madison has a strong black population. Sojourner Truth, a name I just heard recently on Jeopardy that no contestant knew, noted that prejudice against them was even worse than against black men, and she was right. At least black men could vote, although in many states they were denied for whatever reason could be conjured.

 

Born Isabella Baumfree, Sojourner Truth died in 1883 so never saw the freedom she longed for. She walked away from slavery, though, in 1827 and changed her name when she became a traveling preacher.  She gave her most famous speech at a Women's Rights convention in Akron, Ohio, in 1851: "Ain't I a woman?" Here's more from that speech:

 

Then that little man in black there, he says women can't have as much rights as men, 'cause Christ wasn't a woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him.

 

It wasn't until 1913 that the first black women's suffrage group formed in Chicago by Ida B. Wells. Even after the 19th Amendment passed, they fought with black men for those rights until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1965. It seems today we're going backward in time to erase all that progress.

 

Here's an interesting statistic I found online: "If just men had voted in 2012, Romney would have defeated Obama 322–216. If just white women had voted, the spread would have grown to 346–192." The voting bloc of black women helped; their vote was 96% in favor of Obama, the largest bloc percentage of any group. It was not the white vote that got Obama elected the second time, which, we can see, is what makes the GOP so nervous about the popular vote of growing minority groups.

 

Let's compare that to the vote for Nixon in 1968, shortly after the Civil Rights Act. It's not as easy to find that breakdown, but according to Wikipedia, 94% of the vote in black neighborhoods went to Humphrey, compared to 33% of rural votes.

 

I could find no demographics for the vote for Harding in 1920. It's said that his good looks helped with women voters, but it's rumored that his wife killed him for philandering before his term was up. He also said at one point that he wasn't meant for this office.

 

Fortunately women -- especially black women -- have gotten better at making choices. In fact, it would appear that black women always had it right. The black vote overall was at 89% for Clinton in 2016, while white women were only 54% for the first female president. White men supported Trump over Clinton.

 

And isn't it interesting that we don't see a breakout of black men versus black women for the 2016 cycle? Are we indeed going backward in time?

 

References:

at https://www.marieclaire.com/politics/a33808321/how-women-vote-statistics/. 

 

https://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/WIC/Historical-Essays/No-Lady/House-Supports-Suffrage/

 

https://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/19th-amendment-1 

 

https://www.nps.gov/articles/black-women-and-the-fight-for-voting-rights.htm

 

https://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/sojourner-truth.htm 

 

https://www.aei.org/carpe-diem/voter-demographics-for-the-2012-presidential-election/ 

 

https://ropercenter.cornell.edu/how-groups-voted-2016 

 

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Index to "From Lincoln to Trump"

Few things tell you more about a book than the index. In a print copy, this is undeniably needed.  Here for your browsing enjoyment, is the Index, complete with every page that particular topic is mentioned on, for this paperback edition, available soon!

 

As you'll see, this is truly a book about the weaknesses and strengths of our society, shown in the people we choose to make a difference. 

 

INDEX


9/11: 209, 211-216, 225.
2nd Amendment: 225-226, 228,
13th Amendment - Slavery is abolished: 14, 22, 30, 41,
14th Amendment - blacks as citizens affording them equal protection: 25, 31, 41, 43, 55,
116.
15th Amendment - Giving blacks full voting rights with citizenship: 7, 41, 50, 55, 81,
16th Amendment - Income Tax: 74, 88,
17th Amendment (footnote) (Senators by vote): 92 (165f).
18th Amendment - Prohibition: 91,
19th Amendment - Voting regardless of sex: 92-93,
20th Amendment - Changing inauguration day: 105.
21st Amendment - Ending prohibition: 105,
22nd Amendment - No president serves more than two terms; 110.
23rd Amendment - granting DC residents the right to vote: 260,
24th Amendment - Eliminating voters poll tax: 127,
25th Amendment - Filling office of President & Vice President on death or incapacitation: 258, 264-265.
26th Amendment - Lower legal voting age to 18: 162,
27th Amendment - Law covering Congressional pay: 201,
21 Point Plan: 110

 

A

Abolition/Abolitionist: 19, 24, 27-29, 36, 52, 65, 102, 261.
Abortion: 165, 167, 183, 185, 201-202, 209, 219, 245.
Ackerman, Amos: 39-40.
Adams, Abigail: 10.
Adams, Henry: 55-57.
Adams, John: 9-10, 77.
Adams, John Quincy: 11, 77.
Afghanistan: 180, 193-194, 199, 205-206, 210-213, 227.
Africa: 11, 14, 20, 22, 56, 167, 187, 191, 215, 218.
Agnew, Spiro: 159, 166, 170.
AIDS: 191, 218.
Air Force Academy: 116.
al Qaeda: 212-213, 215-216.
Alaska: 32, 87, 95, 165, 210-211, 224.
Alcohol/Temperance: 28, 45, 57, 64, 88, 91, 94, 120, 207.
Allied Nations: 97.
Allotment/Dawes Allotment Act: 52-53, 62, 64-65, 68, 72, 94, 98-99, 102.
American Anti-Slavery Society: 12.
American Child Health Organization: 101.
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU): 151, 201, 203 (f399).
American Colonization Society: 11, 20, 23, 56.
American Indian Movement (AIM): 164.
American "Know-Nothing" Party: 14, 16.
Anthony, Susan B.: 13.
Anti-Drug Abuse Act: 189, 192.
Antifa: 238-239.
Antiquities Act of 1906: 84.
Apartheid: 191.
Arkansas: 37, 127, 144, 163, 228.
Army (see Military).
Army Appropriations Act of 1880: 54.
Arthur, Chester: 53, 60, 63-67.
Assassination: 8, 27-28, 61, 63-64, 78, 123, 128-130, 135-141, 145-153, 156, 159, 169, 170, 172-173, 175-176, 181, 184, 197, 258, 263.
Attempts: 84, 105, 175-176, 185-186.
Atomic bomb: 109, 115-116.
Atwater, Lee: 188, 200.
Attwood, William: 129.
Automobile/car: 64, 76, 94, 97, 101, 103, 118, 211.
"Axis of Evil": 214.

 

 

B

Baby Boomers: 162, 177, 241.
Baghdad: 183, 199, 209, 214, 216.
Ballinger, Richard: 87.
Banks, General Nathaniel: 24.
Barrett, Amy Coney: 240.
Bay of Pigs: 122, 127-128.
Beirut: 189.
Belafonte, Harry: 149.
Belknap, William: 46, 48.
Bell, Alexander Graham, 63.
Benghazi: 189.
Biden, Joe: 7, 20, 118, 156-157, 236, 247-249, 253-257, 259-261, 263, 265.
Bin Laden, Osama: 205-206, 211-212, 215, 219.
Birmingham: 134.
Birney, James: 13.
Black Hills: 37, 45-49, 52, 65.
Black Lives Matter (BLM): 223, 230, 232, 238.
Black Panthers: 161-162, 181, 224.
Blaine, James: 58-60, 62-63, 65, 67-69, 71-72.
Boland Amendment: 192.
Breckenridge, John: 14, 18.
Brown, Judge Joe: 129, 148.
Brown, Michael: 231.
Brownsville Incident: 83.
Brown v. Board of Education: 116.
Bryan, William Jennings: 74-75, 78, 86.
Buchanan, James: 14-15, 18, 22.
Bureau of the Budget: 94,
Burger, Chief Justice Warren: 160, 165.
Burr, Aaron: 10.
Bush, Barbara: 196.
Bush, George Herbert Walker: 159, 175, 184-185, 189, 192-193, 195-202, 205.
Bush, George Walker: 144, 181-182, 193, 207-221, 224-228, 244.
Butler, General Benjamin: 29.
Byrd, Robert C.: 106.

 

C

Calhoun, John: 11.
California: 21, 65, 97, 110, 117, 120, 162, 171 (f313), 183, 211.
Cambodia: 161, 163.
Campaign contributions: 172.
Canada: 65, 72, 198.
Carson National Forest: 165.
Cass, Lewis: 13.
Castro, Fidel: 120-121, 126-129, 136, 145, 175.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): 113, 119-123, 126-130, 132-133, 135-137, 139, 145, 152-153, 158, 162, 167, 173-175, 192, 195, 197, 206, 215, 217-218, 227, 239, 262.

Central Pacific Railroad: 21.
Cesar, Thane: 152.
Chandler, Zacariah: 46.
China: 79, 89, 112, 115-116, 163-164, 166, 196-197, 240-242, 246-247, 250-252, 262.
Chinese: 65, 69, 76, 104, 166, 227.
Christian Right: 114, 142-143, 184.
Church Committee: 129, 136, 173-176.
Civil Rights: 25, 29, 31, 36, 41, 52, 96, 107, 110 (f197), 115-118, 121, 124-125, 127, 133- 135, 140-146, 148, 153-154, 156, 159-161, 172, 174, 178-179, 188, 191, 196, 198, 213, 225 (f413), 230, 262-263.

Clarke, Richard: 214-215.
Clay, Henry: 11-13.
Clean Air Act: 163, 167, 198, 243.
Cleveland, Grover: 67-70, 72-74, 75, 76, 112, 261.
Clinton, George: 9-10.
Clinton, Dewitt: 11.
Clinton, Hillary: 8, 189, 192, 201, 203, 228, 234, 237, 248-249.
Clinton, William J.: 64, 147, 156, 182, 188-189, 193, 197-198, 200-206, 207-208, 210-214, 219, 238, 264.

Cody, Buffalo Bill: 70.
Cointelpro: 148-149, 175.
Cold War: 109-110, 113-115, 119-120, 123, 129 (f229), 163, 181, 184, 193, 197-200.
Colfax Massacre: 42.
Colonization: 11, 20, 23, 56, 83.
Columbia (South America): 82.
Columbus Day: 70-71.
Communism: 74, 109-110, 113-114, 118-120, 123, 126, 128, 132, 148-149, 175, 183-184, 262.
Compromise of 1877: 51-52.
Confederates: 18, 24, 28, 30-31, 33, 40, 57, 67, 163, 239.
Confiscation Act: 22.
Conkling, Roscoe: 53, 58-60, 62-64.
Connecticut: 45, 68, 144.
Constitution: 7, 9-11, 18-20, 23, 28, 30-31, 35, 49, 54, 62, 76, 86, 89, 98, 110-113, 116-117, 127, 143-144, 154, 162, 165, 171, 202, 205, 224, 254, 263.

Cooke, Jay: 44.
Covid 19/Coronovirus: 20, 191, 213, 245-247, 250-253.
Cox, James: 93, 105.
Cox, Minnie: 81-82.
Crawford, William: 11.
Credit Mobilier: 38-39.
Crook, General George: 46, 48, 70.
Cuba: 74, 77-78, 80, 120-121, 127-129, 136, 141, 145, 152, 155, 175, 190.
Curtis, Charles: 102, 104.
Custer, George: 37, 40, 46, 48, 53, 64.
Czolgosz, Leon: 78-79.

 

D

Davis, Jefferson: 23.
Department of Homeland Security: 213-214, 246.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): 144.
Department of Labor: 68.
Department of Labor and Commerce: 82.
Dewey, Thomas: 110-111, 138.
Diem, Ngo Dinh: 116, 129-133, 139, 167, 174, 216-217.
Dingley Tariff of 1897: 77.
Disneyland: 121.
District of Columbia (DC): 49, 73, 181, 203, 211, 228, 260.
Dixiecrats: 110, 154.
Domino Theory: 44, 118, 132, 191.
Doolittle, James R.: 20, 30.
Douglas, Stephen: 18.
Downing, John: 176.
Draft: 8, 24, 36-37, 54, 67, 90, 109, 145, 154, 160, 166-167, 171, 173, 179-180, 261.
Dred Scott: 14, 22.
Drug War: 189, 203.
DuBois, W.E.B.: 52, 81, (f147).
Dukakis, Michael: 195, 197.
Dulles, Allen: 120 (f213), 121-123, 127-128, 136, 141, 178.
Dulles, John Foster: 113, 120.

 

E

Economics:
Banking/banks: 12, 44, 73-74, 77, 88, 102-105, 190, 200-201, 219, 221.
Crash: 12, 100, 105, 190, 224.
Depression: 95, 97, 101-104, 253, 257.
Recession: 68, 185, 187, 197, 201, 218, 224, 227-228, 241, 258.
Silver standard: 45, 73, 75.
Gold standard: 45, 70, 73, 75, 103-104, 257-258.
Panic: 44-45, 71, 84, 137, 190.
Tariffs: 12, 58, 66, 68, 71, 75-77, 79, 83, 88-90, 94, 102-103, 198, 240-242, 254.
Taxes: 8, 65, 74, 88, 90, 95-96, 98-100, 105-106, 127, 159, 166, 179, 183-187, 190,
195, 198, 203, 206-207, 209-211, 217-218, 225-226, 228, 231, 240.
Trickle down: 96, 186, 210.
Voodoo: 184.
Edmunds, Newton: 65.
Education: 21-22, 43, 52, 57, 81, 84, 103-104, 116, 119, 141, 165, 186, 204, 207, 217, 237, 239, 261.
Eisenhower, Dwight (Ike): 44, 81 (f145), 112 (f201), 113-123, 125-130, 132, 134, 140-141,
143, 155-156, 158, 160, 180, 183, 192, 210, 212, 228, 262.

Electoral count/college/Act: 9-12, 18, 51-52, 61, 69, 93, 102, 104, 106, 111, 126-127, 156,
208, 219, 224, 237, 254, 256.

Ellsberg, Daniel: 164, 167-168.
Emancipation/suffrage: 12, 19-20, 22-24, 27-30, 41, 62, 70, 87, 90, 92, 117, 141, 187.
Emmons, Glenn L.: 120.
Endangered Species Act: 163.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): 167.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA); 133, 187.
Ethics in Government Act: 165, 179.
Exner, Judith Campbell: 174, 175 (f319).

 

F

Farmers: 45, 68, 74, 100, 102, 105, 116, 120-121, 178, 200 (f360), 262.
Fauci, Anthony: 252.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): 88, 135, 145, 148-150, 152, 161, 173-175, 180, 206, 217, 249.
Federal Highway Act: 118.
Federal Leasing Act: 38, 99.
Ferraro, Geraldine: 190.
Fillmore, Millard: 13-15.
Firearm Owners Protection Act: 185.
Firearms/guns: 42, 63, 106, 120, 151-153, 180-181, 185, 202, 207, 220, 222, 225, 230, 232, 262.
Fletcher V. Peck: 11.
Florida: 50-51, 105, 155, 163, 174, 208-209, 228, 230, 236.
Floyd, George: 157, 230, 239, 263.
Ford, Betty: 172.
Ford, Gerald: 141, 156, 165-166, 168, 170-177, 178-179, 182, 185, 195, 197
Ford Motor: 103, 220.
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA): 175.
Forrestal, Mike (NSA): 130.
Fort Laramie, Treaty of: 37, 46, 53, 65.
Fort Sumner (Bosque Redondo): 23.
France: 94, 113, 116, 118, 121, 152, 216, 262.
Fraternal Order of Police (FOP): 93 (f166), 151, 223.
Frederick, Karl T. (NRA): 106.
Free-Soil Party: 13.
Freedmen's Bureau: 23, 25, 29-30, 33, 38-39.
Freedom Riders: 133.
Freemason: 86 & f155, 105.
Fremont, John C.: 14-15. 17.
Friedan, Betty: 145.
Fugitive Slave Act: 13, 54, 65, 214.

 

G

Garfield, James: 58-63, 64-68, 86 (f155).
Gardner, Eric: 231.
Garner, John Nance: 106.
Garrison, Jim: 136.
Garrison, William Lloyd: 12.
Georgia: 39, 142, 154, 156, 181, 187, 229, 254-256.
Germany: 72, 83, 90, 95, 97, 103, 109, 128, 216, 235.
Gerry, Elbridge: 11.
Gerrymandering: 259-260.
Ghost Dance/Wounded Knee: 68, 70.
Gibbon, General John: 48.
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader: 203, 228, 240.
Goldwater, Barry: 141-144, 148, 157, 159-160, 183, 195-196, 225, 238.
Gonzalez, Henry: 176.
Gorbachev, Mikhail: 193, 198.
Gore, Al: 61, 181 (f333), 201, 205, 207-209, 248.
Graham, Billy: 115, 163.
Grant, Ulysses S.: 24-25, 28-30, 33, 36-49, 50-53, 55, 57-61, 65, 84, 86, 212, 261-262.
Great Britain: 9, 22, 72, 94, 96, 103, 119, 121, 209.
Greece/Greek: 109, 175 (f319), 258.
Greeley, Horace: 19-20, 43, 261.
Greenspan, Alan: 190, 202.
Griswold, Estelle: 144.
Guatemala: 119, 123.
Guinn V. the United States: 98.
Guiteau, Charles: 62-64.
Gulk of Tonkin Resolution: 146, 168.

 

H

Haiti: 20-21, 23, 172.
Haldeman, H.R.: 160.
"Half-Breeds": 58.
Hall, Albert Bacon: 94.
Hancock, General Winfield S.: 60-61.
Harding, Florence: 93, 95.
Harding, Warren: 92-95, 96, 101.
Harris, Kamala: 4, 248, 256.
Harrison, Benjamin: 68-72, 73, 83.
Harrison, William Henry: 12.
Hawaiian Islands: 62, 67, 72-73, 76-77.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act: 102.
Hayes, Rutherford: 31, 50-57, 58-59, 61, 65, 68, 76.
Hayt, Ezra: 53.
Highways: 94, 101, 104, 118, 145, 213.
Hiss, Alger: 113, 158.
Hitler, Adolf: 108, 116.
Hoffa, Jimmy: 121, 152, 160, 171, 178.
Hollywood: 97, 121, 149.
Homeopathic medicine: 63-64.
Homestead Act: 21.
Hoover, Herbert: 97, 101- 104.
Hoover, J. Edgar: 88, 123, 135, 138, 149, 161-162.
Hooverville: 103.
Hunt, E. Howard: 128, 130, 135-136, 160-161.
Hurricane Katrina: 220.
Hussein, Saddam: 199, 214-215.

 

I

Illinois: 18, 37, 72-73, 140, 222-223, 228.
Immigrants/immigration: 8, 16, 29, 64-65, 75-76, 78, 89, 94, 96-97, 100, 102, 105, 108, 111, 116, 145, 155, 191, 198, 204, 210, 219, 224, 234, 238, 262.
Impeachment: 10, 29, 31-35, 36, 168, 171, 192, 205, 247-248, 258-259, 264-265.
Imperialism: 76, 83, 94.
India: 73, 211, 243.
Indians: 8, 12, 21-23, 25, 30 (f56), 37-38, 44-49, 52-53, 56, 60-62, 64, 67, 70, 72, 84, 88, 96-99, 102-103, 111, 120, 164-165, 186.
Indian Bureau: 46-48, 52, 102, 120, 164.
Indian Citizenship Act: 96-99.
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act: 186.
Indian Oil Leasing Act: 99.
Indian Removal Act: 12.
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act: 165.
Indian termination: 111, 164.
Indiana: 23, 68-69, 73, 96, 232.
Ingersoll, Jerod: 11.
Institute for Social Research: 102.
Insurrection/riots: 8, 10, 30, 40, 49, 54, 67, 94, 119, 144-145, 162, 166, 172, 193, 199, 217, 231, 239, 253, 257, 261, 265.
Interstate Commerce Commission: 82.
Iran: 119, 123, 167, 180, 214, 231, 235, 239, 241-243, 249.
Iran-Contra Affair: 191-192, 197, 201.
Israel: 153, 173, 180, 189, 203.
Italy: 94, 246.

 

J

Jackson, Andrew: 11-13, 17, 226.
Jackson, Helen Hunt: 62.
Japan: 80-82, 89, 94, 96, 104, 108-109, 172.
Jefferson, Thomas: 7, 10.
Jennings, Lizzie: 64.
Jim Crow: 69, 90, 222, 236.
John F. Slater Education Fund for Freedman: 57.
Johnson, Andrew: 21, 24, 27-35, 36, 61, 172, 205, 264.
Johnson, Lyndon B.: 115, 125, 134, 136-147, 149, 155-160, 164, 168, 170, 182, 186, 195- 196, 258, 261.
Johnson, Richard M.: 12.
Judiciary Act: 12, 108.

 

K

Kansas: 18, 34-35, 56, 60, 102, 106.
Kansas-Nebraska Act: 13-14, 17-18.
Kennedy, John F. (JFK): 28, 34, 69, 78, 106, 124-137, 139-142, 145-146, 149, 152, 157, 160, 170, 172-177, 181, 216, 237, 258, 262.
Kennedy, Robert F. (RFK): 121, 130, 133-134, 139, 146-147, 149-154, 156-158, 161, 164, 172-173, 175-176, 178, 223, 262.
Kennedy, Ted: 160-161, 164-165, 181, 202, 211, 220.
Kent State: 161.
Kentucky: 20, 23, 30-31, 40.
Kerry, John: 218-219, 242.
Khomeini, Ayatollah: 180.
Khrushchev, Nikita: 118, 121-122, 128, 158.
King, Martin Luther (MLK): 107, 117, 126-127, 129, 134, 140, 141, 145, 147-149, 157, 161, 173-176.
King, Rodney: 199-200.
King, Rufus: 10-11.
Kissinger, Henry: 163, 167, 172-173.
Knights of the White Camellia: 43.
Knowland, William: 115 & 117.
Know-Nothingism: 15-17, 86.
Korea: 66, 109-110, 113, 115, 158, 177, 214, 238.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK): 29, 39-40, 43, 54-55, 86, 96, 110 (f197), 125, 141, 155, 224, 229.
Kuwait: 199, 212.
Kyoto Protocol: 211.

 

L

Labor Day: 74.
LaFollette, Robert: 96.
Landon, Alfred: 106.
Laos: 163.
Latin America: 67, 82, 100, 149, 193.
"Law and Order": 92, 152, 159, 161-162, 224.
League of Nations: 91.
Lebanon: 189, 192.
Lee, General Robert E.: 25, 28, 40.
Leupp, Francis: 72.
Lewis, John: 134, 141.
Liberia: 11, 20, 22, 55-56.
Lincoln, Abraham: 4, 7-9, 15-25, 27-29, 32, 35, 41, 44, 61, 81, 89-91, 104, 107, 117, 140, 218, 221, 261, 263.
Liverpool: 22.
Lockwood, Belva: 57.
Lodge, Henry Cabot: 77, 78, 81, 92.
Lodge, Henry Cabot Jr.: 121, 125, 130-132, 139.
Louisiana: 10, 29, 37, 40-41, 50-52, 55, 57, 142, 155, 228, 259.
Lundy, Benjamin: 12.
Lusitania: 90.

 


M

Madison, James: 10-11, 201.
Mafia/mob: 97, 121, 126, 128, 135-136 & (f245), 137 (f247), 152-153, 170, 174-175, 262.
Maine: 77.
Maine: 25, 58, 67,
March on Washington Movement: 107.
Maternity & Infancy Act: 94.
Marshall, George: 109, 112.
Marshall, Justice John: 10-11.
Martin, Trayvon: 230.
Massachusetts: 25, 77, 92, 95, 125, 192.
McArthur, General Arthur: 86.
McCain, John: 200, 207, 217, 221, 224, 227, 229.
McCarthy, Eugene: 146.
McCarthy, Joe: 110, 115, 118, 120, 158, 195.
McClellan, George: 25.
McConnell, Mitch: 226, 247, 250.
McGovern, George: 165-166, 168, 176-177.
McKinley, William: 28, 72, 74, 75-79, 81, 176.
McNamara, Robert: 131-133, 136, 139, 146, 164, 167.
Medicare: 141, 144, 202, 220, 229, 240.
Memorial Day: 24.
Menominee Indians: 99, 111, 120, 165.
Meredith, James: 134.
Meriam Report: 99.
Mexico/Mexicans: 13, 65, 88, 90, 108, 111, 198, 204, 220, 234, 238-239, 262.
Military/army: 23-25, 27, 30-32, 37-38, 40, 44, 46, 48, 51, 54-55, 62, 67, 71, 76, 79, 83, 90, 98, 104, 107-108, 110, 113, 116, 118, 120-121, 123, 130-131, 136-137, 141, 167, 170, 175, 184, 186-187, 191, 193, 198, 200, 202, 212-213, 216-217, 219, 225, 235, 252.
Military Industrial Complex: 44, 114, 122, 128-129.
Militia: 18, 22, 42, 54, 225.
Minnesota: 22-23, 88, 120, 190.
Mississippi: 22, 29, 36-37, 127, 134, 142, 154, 187, 229.
Missouri: 11, 17-18, 20, 37, 45.
Mondale, Walter: 179, 190.
Monroe, James: 11, 83.
Monroe, Marilyn: 121, 175.
Montana: 48.
Moore, Levi: 69.
Moral Majority: 184-185, 196-197.
Morgan, J.P.: 73, 102.
Morgan, Thomas: 70.
Morrill Act: 21.
Mossadegh, Mohammad: 119.
"Mugwumps": 67-68.
Mussolini, Benito: 108.
Myer, Indian Commissioner Dillon: 111, 120.

 

N

Napoleon: 22.
Nation, Carrie: 79.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): 118.
National Forest Service: 84.
National Guard: 54, 75, 92, 117, 134.
National Negro Congress: 107.
National Rifle Association (NRA): 97, 106, 180-181, 202, 263.
National Security Council (NSC): 123, 131, 192, 246, 249.
Naval Arms Limitations: 94.
Nebraska: 13, 17-18, 21, 34, 75, 83, 120.
Neo-Conservatives: 184, 210.
Nevada: 21.
New Mexico: 23, 98, 110, 120.
New Deal: 105, 108-110, 114-115, 158.
New Federalism: 185.
New Jersey: 20, 68, 70, 89-90, 204, 213.
New Orleans: 24, 30, 152.
New York: 8, 24-25, 35, 37, 50-51, 53, 58-60, 64, 67-69, 73, 76, 78, 80-81, 83, 91, 97, 101, 105, 167, 172, 190, 214, 230.
"New World Order": 91.
Newspapers/Journalists: 22, 24-25, 97, 101, 136, 178, 241, 256.
Nicaragua: 88, 191-192, 198.
Nixon, Richard M.: 9, 113-114, 118, 121, 125-128, 138, 142, 150, 152, 158-169, 170-173, 175, 177-178, 181-182, 183-185, 187, 189, 196-197, 208, 224, 237, 249, 257, 262- 264.
Nobel Peace Prize: 80, 91, 109.
Noriega, Manuel: 192, 198.
Norman, Thomas: 102.
North, Oliver: 191.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): 198.
Nuclear energy: 110, 115, 118, 121, 142-143, 167, 187, 190, 193, 198, 200, 210, 215, 218, 231, 235, 241, 243, 258.
Nullifier Party: 17.

 

O

O'Connor, Sandra Day: 185.
Obama, Barrack: 119, 126, 141, 143, 156, 182, 214, 218 (f399), 221, 222-233, 236, 239-247, 249-250, 254.
Oil: 77, 87, 94, 99, 103, 106, 115, 119, 153, 163, 165, 172, 178-180, 185-186, 195, 199, 206-207, 210, 211, 215-216, 239, 242-244.
Oklahoma: 72, 94, 99.
Onassis, Aristotle: 149-150,
Onassis, Jackie Kennedy: 126, 137, 139, 146, 149-150.
Oregon: 21, 50, 92, 120.
Oswald, Lee Harvey: 124, 128 (f227), 129, 135, 137-138, 141, 170, 172.

 

P

Pacific Railway Act of 1862: 21-22.
Palestine: 153, 203.
Pan-American Conference: 67, 71, 78.
Panama: 62, 82, 101, 144, 180, 192, 198.
Parker, Alton B.: 83.
Parker, Ely S.: 38.
Parks, Rosa: 117.
Patriot Act: 213-214.
Paul, Alice: 187.
Pelosi, Nancy: 247, 256, 258.
Pendleton Act: 64.
Pennsylvania: 13, 36, 72, 82, 221, 234, 252, 254-255.
Pentagon Papers: 129, 132, 164, 166-168.
Peru: 153.
Philippines: 78, 86, 89, 113.
Pierce, Franklin: 13-14.
Pinchot, Gifford: 87.
Pinckney, Charles: 10.
Pinckney, Thomas: 10.
Planned Parenthood: 144, 195.
Pledge of Allegiance: 114.
Plessy V. Ferguson: 90.
Poindexter, John: 191.
Police actions: 29, 83, 92, 117, 134, 136-138, 150-151, 161, 183, 189, 199, 204, 214, 222- 223, 227, 229 , 231-233.
Polk, James: 13.
Populist Party: 72, 75, 89, 153, 248.
Posse comitatus: 54.
Postal Service: 63, 82, 250.
Potsdam Conference: 110.
Powell, Colin: 199, 215-217, 219.
Powers, Francis Gary: 122.
Presidential Pension: 122, 176.
Price, Hiram: 62.
Proclamations: 27.
Prohibition: 79, 88, 94, 96-97, 101, 103, 105, 202, 225, 236.
Protests: 8, 23, 88, 117, 124, 131, 145, 159, 161, 162, 164, 172, 183, 185, 209, 225, 230, 238, 239.
Pure Food and Drug Act: 82.
Putin, Vladimir: 8, 198, 211, 218, 235, 249-250.

 

Q

QAnon: 156, 237.

 

R

Racist/racism: 8, 9, 16, 35, 43, 52, 79, 81, 83-84, 96, 101, 107, 125, 148, 157, 161, 188-190, 226-229, 231-232, 237, 241, 261-262.
Radio: 95, 97, 101, 105, 126, 226.
Railroad: 21, 36-39, 43-45, 54, 56, 62, 64, 67-68, 73-74, 87, 89, 103.
Randolph, A. Philip: 107, 134.
Rattlesnake Dome oil scandal: 103.
Ray, James Earl: 147-148.
Reagan, Nancy: 184, 193, 197.
Reagan, Ronald: 8, 95-96, 143-144, 148, 155, 159, 166, 176, 178, 181-182, 183-194, 196- 197, 200-203, 207-208, 224, 262.
Reconstruction: 25, 29, 31-34, 36-37, 48-54, 56-57, 59, 61, 90, 103, 154-155, 262.
Red Cloud Investigation: 47.
Red Cross: 63.
Religion: 15, 86, 115, 126, 140, 144, 163, 184, 206.
Reservation: 23, 38, 46, 56, 62, 70, 88, 98, 99, 111, 120, 186.
Rice, Condoleezza: 217, 219.
Rice, Susan: 249.
Rock music (as torture): 198.
Rockefeller, Nelson III: 125, 159, 163, 166, 172, 176-177.
Roe V. Wade: 31, 144, 165, 201-202.
Roosevelt, Eleanor: 105, 107.
Roosevelt, Franklin (FDR): 69, 88, 93, 104-109, 110 (f197), 114-116, 123, 143, 155, 186, 258.
Roosevelt, Theodore: 71, 78, 80-85, 86-87, 88-90, 92.
Ross, Edmund G.: 34-35.
Ruby, Jack: 135, 170.
Rumsfeld, Donald: 210, 215, 217, 2219-220.
Russia: 8, 16, 80, 110, 118 (f210), 198, 216, 218, 234-236, 239, 242, 247, 249, 256.

 

S

Samoa: 72, 83.
Sandy Hook Elementary School: 232.
Saudi Arabia: 150, 212, 242.
Schurz, Carl: 15, 37-38, 52-53, 62.
Scott, Walter: 231.
Scott, Winfield: 13.
Secession: 15, 18, 20-21, 28, 35, 256, 261, 263.
Secret Service: 28, 85 (f154), 140, 176, 185, 262.
Secret society: 16, 86.
Segregation/desegregation: 23, 64, 90, 107-108, 110, 116-117, 134-135, 145, 155, 165, 167, 172, 178, 184, 191.
Sexual harassment: 191, 198, 203-204.
Seymour, Horatio: 37.
Schofield, General John M.: 33.
Shek, Chiang Kai: 112.
Shelby County V. Holder: 98.
Sheridan, General Phil: 30, 37, 46, 48, 51.
Sherman, John: 58-61, 82, 86.
Shriver, Sargent: 165-166.
Sioux Indians: 22-23, 47-48, 53, 64.
Sirhan, Sirhan: 150-153, 156.
Sitting Bull: 46, 70.
Slavery: 9, 11-14, 15, 17-21, 24, 27, 29-30, 33, 35, 36, 40, 52, 61, 69, 107, 145, 222, 231, 261.
Slaves: 8, 10, 11, 17, 19-20, 22-23, 27-31, 33, 40, 41, 52, 54-56, 62, 65, 261.
Smathers, George: 174.
Smith, Alfred E.: 101.
Smith, Caleb Blood: 23.
Smith, Edward P.: 45, 47.
Smith, John Q.: 47, 53.
Soldiers: 22, 24-25, 30, 49, 55, 57, 72-73, 83-84, 91, 97, 199, 219.
Social Security Administration: 104, 110, 141 (f257), 204, 210, 219, 229, 240.
Socialism: 90, 93, 101, 104, 148.
Socialist (Party): 21, 91, 93, 102-104.
South Carolina: 31, 49-52, 57, 142, 155-156, 232.
Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO): 113.
Southern Manifesto: 117.
Spanish American War: 77-78, 80.
Spanish Flu: 91-92.
Stalin, Joe: 110, 118.
"Stalwarts": 58-59, 61, 63-64.
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady: 13.
Stanton, Edwin M.: 29, 33, 35.
Star Wars: 193.
Stevens, Thaddeus: 28-29, 32, 36.
Stevenson, Adlai Jr.: 112-113, 155.
Stimson Doctrine: 104, 109.
Stock/stock market: 39, 45, 95-97, 100, 102, 103, 190-191, 207.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT): 166.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START): 193, 198.
Street and Highway Safety Commission: 101.
Strikes
Labor: 54, 68, 71-72, 74, 75, 79, 82, 92, 103, 111-112, 187, 258.
Military: 90, 120, 126, 139, 199, 205, 209, 211, 231, 216.

Sturgis, Frank: 136.
Suffrage: 12, 24, 29, 41, 70, 87, 90, 92, 187.
Supreme Court: 4, 8-10, 12-13, 23, 57, 74, 83, 86, 89-90, 96, 98, 106, 108, 111-112, 114, 117, 134, 140, 143-145, 156, 165, 167-168, 185, 191, 198, 201, 203-204, 208-209, 225, 228, 240, 245, 255, 259-260.

 

T

Taft, Alphonso: 47, 49, 84.
Taft-Hartley Act: 111-112.
Taft, Nellie: 87.
Taft, William H.: 84, 86-89, 92.
Tammany Hall: 69, 81.
Tariff Trade Act: 103.
Taylor, Zachary: 13.
Tea Party: 143-144, 224-229, 231, 234, 238, 257.
Teapot Dome Scandal: 94-95.
Tennessee: 24, 27-29, 105, 147, 156, 201, 228.
Tenure of Office Act: 30, 32-33, 68.
Terry, General Alfred: 48.
Texas: 13, 23, 37, 96, 127, 135-136, 138, 155, 176, 195, 200, 207, 229, 236, 255, 257.
Thieu, Nguyen Van: 173.
Thurmon, Strom: 111.
Tilden, Sam: 50-51, 61.
Treaty of Versailles: 91.
Truman, Harry S.: 106, 109-112, 113, 116, 119, 122-123, 143, 148, 262.
Trumball, Lyman: 35-36.
Trump, Donald J.: 4, 7-9, 20, 32, 91, 98, 110, 125, 140, 143, 154-157, 181, 191, 193, 204- 205, 218-219, 221-222, 226, 228, 234-259.
Turkey: 109, 128.
Twain, Mark: 51, 56, 66.
Tyler, John: 12-13.

 

U

Ukraine: 198, 247.
Unemployment: 44, 77, 103, 126, 162, 179, 187, 190, 197, 218, 257.
Union: Civil War: 11, 15, 18-24, 27-31, 34, 37, 67, 72, 113, 261.
Labor: 54, 72, 92-93, 110-112, 120, 123, 152, 158, 160-162, 187, 232.
United Nations: 91, 109, 115, 196-197.
Union Pacific Railroad: 37-38.
United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR/Soviet Union): 109, 118, 120-122, 127-128, 135, 142, 163, 166, 173, 175, 180, 184, 193, 198-199, 212.
United States vs. Cruikshank: 43.
Usher, John P.: 23.
Utah: 37.

 

V

Valentine, Robert: 88.
Van Buren, Martin: 12-13.
Vaughn, Robert: 128 (f227), 149.
Venezuela: 83.
Veterans: 58, 95, 103-104, 263.
Vietnam: 115-116, 118, 124-125, 127, 129-133, 137, 141-142, 144, 146-147, 149, 153, 159, 161, 163-164, 166-167, 170-171, 173, 175, 179, 181, 192, 215, 262.
Virginia: 12, 24, 37, 127, 156, 176.
Volstead Act: 91.
Voter fraud: 127, 255.
Voting Rights Act: 98, 141, 144, 156, 188, 259.

 

W

Wallace, George: 134, 159, 165, 176.
Wallace, Henry: 106, 109, 111.
Warren Commission: 137, 139, 141, 152, 170-171, 176.
Warren, Justice Earl: 110, 116-117.
Washington, Booker T.: 81, 82 (f147), 83, 88, 145.
Washington, George: 9.
Washita: 37.
Watergate: 95, 114, 128, 136, 164, 166-168, 173, 179.
Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs): 214-219, 221.
Webb, Lucy Ware: 57.
Weinberger, Casper: 192, 201-202.
West Virginia: 54, 96.
Whig Party: 12-13, 15, 17.
Wilbur, Ray Lyman: 102.
Wilson, Edith: 91-92.
Wilson, Woodrow: 85, 88, 89-92, 95, 101.
Wisconsin: 17, 20, 59, 73, 84, 96, 102, 111, 120, 222, 232, 234, 236, 245, 255.
Wolfowitz, Paul: 210, 215.
World Health Organization: 251.
World War I: 85, 90, 92, 98, 101, 104.
World War II: 104, 107, 112-113, 123, 140, 155, 195, 262.
Wounded Knee: 68, 70.

 

X

X, Malcolm: 141, 145, 162.

 

Y

Yellowstone National Park: 84.
Yeltsin, Boris: 198, 200.

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