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Thoughtful Research

Using Attitude to Clarify Controversial History

We all know controversy. It's when we can't agree on something that happened and argue about it. Most people argue about things that happened that cannot be known for sure. Controversy is defined as "a disputation concerning a matter of opinion."  This means that no real answer can be found, and people argue what they believe to be true. It's like arguing that your God is the real God because you believe it. There's no way to establish that as fact; even NDEs can be argued as being nothing more than dreams based on a person's beliefs. Sirhan's denied parole again today for killing Bobby Kennedy indicates people don't want to visit that controversial proof that Sirhan could NOT have fired the killing shot, because, boy, what a kettle of worms that would open.

 

In "controversial history," as I will define it here, there is a way to use attitude of the people who made history to find out why things happened the way they did.  One way, of course, is by sharing both sides to every story and staying completely objective, as I tried to do in "Civil War & Bloody Peace," just following the orders and showing responses formed by attitudes. History should never be just about what happened. Dates, names and places. These have been forced on kids to memorize, without an understanding of the event itself.

 

The problem with American history, in general, is that historical events contain so much hidden attitude.  We don't want to think that our motives were ever anything but noble, so we don't get into too much depth over why events happened. We know Custer died at the Little Bighorn, and as a result, the Indians lost the Black Hills. But why?

 

That's the question we have to keep asking until we get at the truth. Many historians believe they'll never know the real reason Custer died at the Little Bighorn, and they don't want to believe what Grant had to do to get the Black Hills. Questions remain because we cannot see the whole picture without attitude. It's controversial, because it contains information that people really don't want to know.  Attitude that creates the why is what people seem to believe we can't possibly ever know, anyway.

 

In a way, we can't. I can't say for a fact that Lincoln was so involved in the Civil War because he felt guilty for secession coming over his election. There will never be a fact in that attitude unless we find it in his handwriting somewhere.  But when we infer this attitude based on the fact that secession happened because he was elected -- and we apply logic, as in, wouldn't you feel guilty? -- then we can make sense of a lot of his decisions over those four years.  

 

Making sense of history is what helps us to understand why something happened. Finding out why something happened is the only way we can learn from history. We always hear this; people who don't learn from history are doomed to repeat it. Well, how do we learn if we don't explore reasons why something happened? And how do we learn the why if we don't look for attitude?

 

So controversial history is history using attitude that brings new light to the pieces of fact that don't otherwise fit together. Things that make complete sense because of what people who were involved in an event stood to gain from the event going a certain way is what made President Grant the instigator of the Little Bighorn, as you'll see following those events in "Civil War & Bloody Peace." Making an event make sense by looking at the attitudes of the participants also clarifies so much of what happened in the 1960s, as you'll see in "From Lincoln to Trump," and why things happened as they did after that. Think we had a handle on Civil Rights? Then how did we get a resurgence of white supremacism under Trump? How do we now see minority voting rights being threatened? Why are the minorities in this country the most at risk in the pandemic? If A + B doesn't equal C, then the event is not making sense. We cannot know the attitudes of people, but we can infer them by their actions, by what they deemed important.

 

Controversial history is also learning how the U.S. as a country, with many leaders and an over-arching guiding principle of free market, capitalism and Democracy, has made so many mistakes and bad decisions in the name of resource capital. Let's call it Uncle Sam, so we're not picking on a political party here.  Now Uncle Sam seems like a shining example of freedom to the world, and people come here to escape oppression. All well and good. But we have history that we have not learned from because we don't teach it, we hide it from view;  Uncle Sam doesn't like to tell people why he does things the way he does. Yes, the American dream is to get rich. Anybody can, right? That is the U.S. myth that so many buy into. Doctors come here from socialist countries because they can make more here. All my doctors last year had foreign accents. All of them.

 

Nearly since the creation of the U.S., big business has been in control, and rich people are more ordained than made.  There are examples, of course, of people rising from poverty due to innovation, just as there are those who were born rich and squandered it all. John Mackay is one; due to the Comstock in Virginia City, he became one of the ten richest in the world in the 1800s, but a rare man who retained that goodness to him. There are those who are rich enough to buy a political seat only to be on the inside where they can get richer. And those resources? Uncle Sam decides that if he can control another country through a petty dictator, our country will thrive. Who cares about them, right? Our cries of freedom become tarnished.  The labor (and that's the rest of us) are kept as little more than slaves to the system.

 

Uncle Sam, you see, was the last industrial nation to free its slaves; even Russia freed its serfs before slavery ended here. That's a fact that you won't hear in history class. And the attitude? Racism is caused by the dominant group (whites) not wanting competition and liking cheap labor. Slavery now is little more than being sucked into a system where you can never get ahead, because you're too busy struggling to make ends meet, and being kept there by a system regulated by business. And we have immigration problems because business likes cheap labor. Except that lately, politicians don't like how immigrants vote, so obstruct immigration, leading to a lack of labor; businesses can't find people, because they don't want more voters voting Democrat. The system has opened up its internal flaws, and we all suffer.

 

Uncle Sam, however, will continue to insist that anyone can get rich. We've all heard those stories of people who have invented the next great thing. Or won the lottery. It's like self-publishing a novel that actually turns out to be a million seller. Or trying to become the next great screenwriter, opposing a closed system.

 

All of this that I've just discussed is controversial history. There is no way to prove that we are all basically being held back by Uncle Sam's capitalism, right? This has been an on-going debate for a long time, and there are no real answers to offer. Free guns for all, that's freedom, isn't it? People will point to the socialist system and say it's no better. Where do all the bright minds and great inventions seem to emerge? The U.S., right? Although in today's world, it feels the U.S. is being surpassed in many ways by China, and being thwarted on the international front by Russia.

 

What I offer, as a historian, are answers to controversial historical events that have been puzzling historians since they happened. Answers will emerge by the application of another piece of information pertaining to the event that has been either unknown or that Uncle Sam does not want you to know. That, too, is attitude.  

 

And while you might say that the addition of this information doesn't make this new "why" a fact, I think you'll see that it becomes hard to look at that event any other way anymore.  Because fact with attitude makes sense.

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Index to "From Lincoln to Trump"

Few things tell you more about a book than the index. In a print copy, this is undeniably needed.  Here for your browsing enjoyment, is the Index, complete with every page that particular topic is mentioned on, for this paperback edition, available soon!

 

As you'll see, this is truly a book about the weaknesses and strengths of our society, shown in the people we choose to make a difference. 

 

INDEX


9/11: 209, 211-216, 225.
2nd Amendment: 225-226, 228,
13th Amendment - Slavery is abolished: 14, 22, 30, 41,
14th Amendment - blacks as citizens affording them equal protection: 25, 31, 41, 43, 55,
116.
15th Amendment - Giving blacks full voting rights with citizenship: 7, 41, 50, 55, 81,
16th Amendment - Income Tax: 74, 88,
17th Amendment (footnote) (Senators by vote): 92 (165f).
18th Amendment - Prohibition: 91,
19th Amendment - Voting regardless of sex: 92-93,
20th Amendment - Changing inauguration day: 105.
21st Amendment - Ending prohibition: 105,
22nd Amendment - No president serves more than two terms; 110.
23rd Amendment - granting DC residents the right to vote: 260,
24th Amendment - Eliminating voters poll tax: 127,
25th Amendment - Filling office of President & Vice President on death or incapacitation: 258, 264-265.
26th Amendment - Lower legal voting age to 18: 162,
27th Amendment - Law covering Congressional pay: 201,
21 Point Plan: 110

 

A

Abolition/Abolitionist: 19, 24, 27-29, 36, 52, 65, 102, 261.
Abortion: 165, 167, 183, 185, 201-202, 209, 219, 245.
Ackerman, Amos: 39-40.
Adams, Abigail: 10.
Adams, Henry: 55-57.
Adams, John: 9-10, 77.
Adams, John Quincy: 11, 77.
Afghanistan: 180, 193-194, 199, 205-206, 210-213, 227.
Africa: 11, 14, 20, 22, 56, 167, 187, 191, 215, 218.
Agnew, Spiro: 159, 166, 170.
AIDS: 191, 218.
Air Force Academy: 116.
al Qaeda: 212-213, 215-216.
Alaska: 32, 87, 95, 165, 210-211, 224.
Alcohol/Temperance: 28, 45, 57, 64, 88, 91, 94, 120, 207.
Allied Nations: 97.
Allotment/Dawes Allotment Act: 52-53, 62, 64-65, 68, 72, 94, 98-99, 102.
American Anti-Slavery Society: 12.
American Child Health Organization: 101.
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU): 151, 201, 203 (f399).
American Colonization Society: 11, 20, 23, 56.
American Indian Movement (AIM): 164.
American "Know-Nothing" Party: 14, 16.
Anthony, Susan B.: 13.
Anti-Drug Abuse Act: 189, 192.
Antifa: 238-239.
Antiquities Act of 1906: 84.
Apartheid: 191.
Arkansas: 37, 127, 144, 163, 228.
Army (see Military).
Army Appropriations Act of 1880: 54.
Arthur, Chester: 53, 60, 63-67.
Assassination: 8, 27-28, 61, 63-64, 78, 123, 128-130, 135-141, 145-153, 156, 159, 169, 170, 172-173, 175-176, 181, 184, 197, 258, 263.
Attempts: 84, 105, 175-176, 185-186.
Atomic bomb: 109, 115-116.
Atwater, Lee: 188, 200.
Attwood, William: 129.
Automobile/car: 64, 76, 94, 97, 101, 103, 118, 211.
"Axis of Evil": 214.

 

 

B

Baby Boomers: 162, 177, 241.
Baghdad: 183, 199, 209, 214, 216.
Ballinger, Richard: 87.
Banks, General Nathaniel: 24.
Barrett, Amy Coney: 240.
Bay of Pigs: 122, 127-128.
Beirut: 189.
Belafonte, Harry: 149.
Belknap, William: 46, 48.
Bell, Alexander Graham, 63.
Benghazi: 189.
Biden, Joe: 7, 20, 118, 156-157, 236, 247-249, 253-257, 259-261, 263, 265.
Bin Laden, Osama: 205-206, 211-212, 215, 219.
Birmingham: 134.
Birney, James: 13.
Black Hills: 37, 45-49, 52, 65.
Black Lives Matter (BLM): 223, 230, 232, 238.
Black Panthers: 161-162, 181, 224.
Blaine, James: 58-60, 62-63, 65, 67-69, 71-72.
Boland Amendment: 192.
Breckenridge, John: 14, 18.
Brown, Judge Joe: 129, 148.
Brown, Michael: 231.
Brownsville Incident: 83.
Brown v. Board of Education: 116.
Bryan, William Jennings: 74-75, 78, 86.
Buchanan, James: 14-15, 18, 22.
Bureau of the Budget: 94,
Burger, Chief Justice Warren: 160, 165.
Burr, Aaron: 10.
Bush, Barbara: 196.
Bush, George Herbert Walker: 159, 175, 184-185, 189, 192-193, 195-202, 205.
Bush, George Walker: 144, 181-182, 193, 207-221, 224-228, 244.
Butler, General Benjamin: 29.
Byrd, Robert C.: 106.

 

C

Calhoun, John: 11.
California: 21, 65, 97, 110, 117, 120, 162, 171 (f313), 183, 211.
Cambodia: 161, 163.
Campaign contributions: 172.
Canada: 65, 72, 198.
Carson National Forest: 165.
Cass, Lewis: 13.
Castro, Fidel: 120-121, 126-129, 136, 145, 175.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): 113, 119-123, 126-130, 132-133, 135-137, 139, 145, 152-153, 158, 162, 167, 173-175, 192, 195, 197, 206, 215, 217-218, 227, 239, 262.

Central Pacific Railroad: 21.
Cesar, Thane: 152.
Chandler, Zacariah: 46.
China: 79, 89, 112, 115-116, 163-164, 166, 196-197, 240-242, 246-247, 250-252, 262.
Chinese: 65, 69, 76, 104, 166, 227.
Christian Right: 114, 142-143, 184.
Church Committee: 129, 136, 173-176.
Civil Rights: 25, 29, 31, 36, 41, 52, 96, 107, 110 (f197), 115-118, 121, 124-125, 127, 133- 135, 140-146, 148, 153-154, 156, 159-161, 172, 174, 178-179, 188, 191, 196, 198, 213, 225 (f413), 230, 262-263.

Clarke, Richard: 214-215.
Clay, Henry: 11-13.
Clean Air Act: 163, 167, 198, 243.
Cleveland, Grover: 67-70, 72-74, 75, 76, 112, 261.
Clinton, George: 9-10.
Clinton, Dewitt: 11.
Clinton, Hillary: 8, 189, 192, 201, 203, 228, 234, 237, 248-249.
Clinton, William J.: 64, 147, 156, 182, 188-189, 193, 197-198, 200-206, 207-208, 210-214, 219, 238, 264.

Cody, Buffalo Bill: 70.
Cointelpro: 148-149, 175.
Cold War: 109-110, 113-115, 119-120, 123, 129 (f229), 163, 181, 184, 193, 197-200.
Colfax Massacre: 42.
Colonization: 11, 20, 23, 56, 83.
Columbia (South America): 82.
Columbus Day: 70-71.
Communism: 74, 109-110, 113-114, 118-120, 123, 126, 128, 132, 148-149, 175, 183-184, 262.
Compromise of 1877: 51-52.
Confederates: 18, 24, 28, 30-31, 33, 40, 57, 67, 163, 239.
Confiscation Act: 22.
Conkling, Roscoe: 53, 58-60, 62-64.
Connecticut: 45, 68, 144.
Constitution: 7, 9-11, 18-20, 23, 28, 30-31, 35, 49, 54, 62, 76, 86, 89, 98, 110-113, 116-117, 127, 143-144, 154, 162, 165, 171, 202, 205, 224, 254, 263.

Cooke, Jay: 44.
Covid 19/Coronovirus: 20, 191, 213, 245-247, 250-253.
Cox, James: 93, 105.
Cox, Minnie: 81-82.
Crawford, William: 11.
Credit Mobilier: 38-39.
Crook, General George: 46, 48, 70.
Cuba: 74, 77-78, 80, 120-121, 127-129, 136, 141, 145, 152, 155, 175, 190.
Curtis, Charles: 102, 104.
Custer, George: 37, 40, 46, 48, 53, 64.
Czolgosz, Leon: 78-79.

 

D

Davis, Jefferson: 23.
Department of Homeland Security: 213-214, 246.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): 144.
Department of Labor: 68.
Department of Labor and Commerce: 82.
Dewey, Thomas: 110-111, 138.
Diem, Ngo Dinh: 116, 129-133, 139, 167, 174, 216-217.
Dingley Tariff of 1897: 77.
Disneyland: 121.
District of Columbia (DC): 49, 73, 181, 203, 211, 228, 260.
Dixiecrats: 110, 154.
Domino Theory: 44, 118, 132, 191.
Doolittle, James R.: 20, 30.
Douglas, Stephen: 18.
Downing, John: 176.
Draft: 8, 24, 36-37, 54, 67, 90, 109, 145, 154, 160, 166-167, 171, 173, 179-180, 261.
Dred Scott: 14, 22.
Drug War: 189, 203.
DuBois, W.E.B.: 52, 81, (f147).
Dukakis, Michael: 195, 197.
Dulles, Allen: 120 (f213), 121-123, 127-128, 136, 141, 178.
Dulles, John Foster: 113, 120.

 

E

Economics:
Banking/banks: 12, 44, 73-74, 77, 88, 102-105, 190, 200-201, 219, 221.
Crash: 12, 100, 105, 190, 224.
Depression: 95, 97, 101-104, 253, 257.
Recession: 68, 185, 187, 197, 201, 218, 224, 227-228, 241, 258.
Silver standard: 45, 73, 75.
Gold standard: 45, 70, 73, 75, 103-104, 257-258.
Panic: 44-45, 71, 84, 137, 190.
Tariffs: 12, 58, 66, 68, 71, 75-77, 79, 83, 88-90, 94, 102-103, 198, 240-242, 254.
Taxes: 8, 65, 74, 88, 90, 95-96, 98-100, 105-106, 127, 159, 166, 179, 183-187, 190,
195, 198, 203, 206-207, 209-211, 217-218, 225-226, 228, 231, 240.
Trickle down: 96, 186, 210.
Voodoo: 184.
Edmunds, Newton: 65.
Education: 21-22, 43, 52, 57, 81, 84, 103-104, 116, 119, 141, 165, 186, 204, 207, 217, 237, 239, 261.
Eisenhower, Dwight (Ike): 44, 81 (f145), 112 (f201), 113-123, 125-130, 132, 134, 140-141,
143, 155-156, 158, 160, 180, 183, 192, 210, 212, 228, 262.

Electoral count/college/Act: 9-12, 18, 51-52, 61, 69, 93, 102, 104, 106, 111, 126-127, 156,
208, 219, 224, 237, 254, 256.

Ellsberg, Daniel: 164, 167-168.
Emancipation/suffrage: 12, 19-20, 22-24, 27-30, 41, 62, 70, 87, 90, 92, 117, 141, 187.
Emmons, Glenn L.: 120.
Endangered Species Act: 163.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): 167.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA); 133, 187.
Ethics in Government Act: 165, 179.
Exner, Judith Campbell: 174, 175 (f319).

 

F

Farmers: 45, 68, 74, 100, 102, 105, 116, 120-121, 178, 200 (f360), 262.
Fauci, Anthony: 252.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): 88, 135, 145, 148-150, 152, 161, 173-175, 180, 206, 217, 249.
Federal Highway Act: 118.
Federal Leasing Act: 38, 99.
Ferraro, Geraldine: 190.
Fillmore, Millard: 13-15.
Firearm Owners Protection Act: 185.
Firearms/guns: 42, 63, 106, 120, 151-153, 180-181, 185, 202, 207, 220, 222, 225, 230, 232, 262.
Fletcher V. Peck: 11.
Florida: 50-51, 105, 155, 163, 174, 208-209, 228, 230, 236.
Floyd, George: 157, 230, 239, 263.
Ford, Betty: 172.
Ford, Gerald: 141, 156, 165-166, 168, 170-177, 178-179, 182, 185, 195, 197
Ford Motor: 103, 220.
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA): 175.
Forrestal, Mike (NSA): 130.
Fort Laramie, Treaty of: 37, 46, 53, 65.
Fort Sumner (Bosque Redondo): 23.
France: 94, 113, 116, 118, 121, 152, 216, 262.
Fraternal Order of Police (FOP): 93 (f166), 151, 223.
Frederick, Karl T. (NRA): 106.
Free-Soil Party: 13.
Freedmen's Bureau: 23, 25, 29-30, 33, 38-39.
Freedom Riders: 133.
Freemason: 86 & f155, 105.
Fremont, John C.: 14-15. 17.
Friedan, Betty: 145.
Fugitive Slave Act: 13, 54, 65, 214.

 

G

Garfield, James: 58-63, 64-68, 86 (f155).
Gardner, Eric: 231.
Garner, John Nance: 106.
Garrison, Jim: 136.
Garrison, William Lloyd: 12.
Georgia: 39, 142, 154, 156, 181, 187, 229, 254-256.
Germany: 72, 83, 90, 95, 97, 103, 109, 128, 216, 235.
Gerry, Elbridge: 11.
Gerrymandering: 259-260.
Ghost Dance/Wounded Knee: 68, 70.
Gibbon, General John: 48.
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader: 203, 228, 240.
Goldwater, Barry: 141-144, 148, 157, 159-160, 183, 195-196, 225, 238.
Gonzalez, Henry: 176.
Gorbachev, Mikhail: 193, 198.
Gore, Al: 61, 181 (f333), 201, 205, 207-209, 248.
Graham, Billy: 115, 163.
Grant, Ulysses S.: 24-25, 28-30, 33, 36-49, 50-53, 55, 57-61, 65, 84, 86, 212, 261-262.
Great Britain: 9, 22, 72, 94, 96, 103, 119, 121, 209.
Greece/Greek: 109, 175 (f319), 258.
Greeley, Horace: 19-20, 43, 261.
Greenspan, Alan: 190, 202.
Griswold, Estelle: 144.
Guatemala: 119, 123.
Guinn V. the United States: 98.
Guiteau, Charles: 62-64.
Gulk of Tonkin Resolution: 146, 168.

 

H

Haiti: 20-21, 23, 172.
Haldeman, H.R.: 160.
"Half-Breeds": 58.
Hall, Albert Bacon: 94.
Hancock, General Winfield S.: 60-61.
Harding, Florence: 93, 95.
Harding, Warren: 92-95, 96, 101.
Harris, Kamala: 4, 248, 256.
Harrison, Benjamin: 68-72, 73, 83.
Harrison, William Henry: 12.
Hawaiian Islands: 62, 67, 72-73, 76-77.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act: 102.
Hayes, Rutherford: 31, 50-57, 58-59, 61, 65, 68, 76.
Hayt, Ezra: 53.
Highways: 94, 101, 104, 118, 145, 213.
Hiss, Alger: 113, 158.
Hitler, Adolf: 108, 116.
Hoffa, Jimmy: 121, 152, 160, 171, 178.
Hollywood: 97, 121, 149.
Homeopathic medicine: 63-64.
Homestead Act: 21.
Hoover, Herbert: 97, 101- 104.
Hoover, J. Edgar: 88, 123, 135, 138, 149, 161-162.
Hooverville: 103.
Hunt, E. Howard: 128, 130, 135-136, 160-161.
Hurricane Katrina: 220.
Hussein, Saddam: 199, 214-215.

 

I

Illinois: 18, 37, 72-73, 140, 222-223, 228.
Immigrants/immigration: 8, 16, 29, 64-65, 75-76, 78, 89, 94, 96-97, 100, 102, 105, 108, 111, 116, 145, 155, 191, 198, 204, 210, 219, 224, 234, 238, 262.
Impeachment: 10, 29, 31-35, 36, 168, 171, 192, 205, 247-248, 258-259, 264-265.
Imperialism: 76, 83, 94.
India: 73, 211, 243.
Indians: 8, 12, 21-23, 25, 30 (f56), 37-38, 44-49, 52-53, 56, 60-62, 64, 67, 70, 72, 84, 88, 96-99, 102-103, 111, 120, 164-165, 186.
Indian Bureau: 46-48, 52, 102, 120, 164.
Indian Citizenship Act: 96-99.
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act: 186.
Indian Oil Leasing Act: 99.
Indian Removal Act: 12.
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act: 165.
Indian termination: 111, 164.
Indiana: 23, 68-69, 73, 96, 232.
Ingersoll, Jerod: 11.
Institute for Social Research: 102.
Insurrection/riots: 8, 10, 30, 40, 49, 54, 67, 94, 119, 144-145, 162, 166, 172, 193, 199, 217, 231, 239, 253, 257, 261, 265.
Interstate Commerce Commission: 82.
Iran: 119, 123, 167, 180, 214, 231, 235, 239, 241-243, 249.
Iran-Contra Affair: 191-192, 197, 201.
Israel: 153, 173, 180, 189, 203.
Italy: 94, 246.

 

J

Jackson, Andrew: 11-13, 17, 226.
Jackson, Helen Hunt: 62.
Japan: 80-82, 89, 94, 96, 104, 108-109, 172.
Jefferson, Thomas: 7, 10.
Jennings, Lizzie: 64.
Jim Crow: 69, 90, 222, 236.
John F. Slater Education Fund for Freedman: 57.
Johnson, Andrew: 21, 24, 27-35, 36, 61, 172, 205, 264.
Johnson, Lyndon B.: 115, 125, 134, 136-147, 149, 155-160, 164, 168, 170, 182, 186, 195- 196, 258, 261.
Johnson, Richard M.: 12.
Judiciary Act: 12, 108.

 

K

Kansas: 18, 34-35, 56, 60, 102, 106.
Kansas-Nebraska Act: 13-14, 17-18.
Kennedy, John F. (JFK): 28, 34, 69, 78, 106, 124-137, 139-142, 145-146, 149, 152, 157, 160, 170, 172-177, 181, 216, 237, 258, 262.
Kennedy, Robert F. (RFK): 121, 130, 133-134, 139, 146-147, 149-154, 156-158, 161, 164, 172-173, 175-176, 178, 223, 262.
Kennedy, Ted: 160-161, 164-165, 181, 202, 211, 220.
Kent State: 161.
Kentucky: 20, 23, 30-31, 40.
Kerry, John: 218-219, 242.
Khomeini, Ayatollah: 180.
Khrushchev, Nikita: 118, 121-122, 128, 158.
King, Martin Luther (MLK): 107, 117, 126-127, 129, 134, 140, 141, 145, 147-149, 157, 161, 173-176.
King, Rodney: 199-200.
King, Rufus: 10-11.
Kissinger, Henry: 163, 167, 172-173.
Knights of the White Camellia: 43.
Knowland, William: 115 & 117.
Know-Nothingism: 15-17, 86.
Korea: 66, 109-110, 113, 115, 158, 177, 214, 238.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK): 29, 39-40, 43, 54-55, 86, 96, 110 (f197), 125, 141, 155, 224, 229.
Kuwait: 199, 212.
Kyoto Protocol: 211.

 

L

Labor Day: 74.
LaFollette, Robert: 96.
Landon, Alfred: 106.
Laos: 163.
Latin America: 67, 82, 100, 149, 193.
"Law and Order": 92, 152, 159, 161-162, 224.
League of Nations: 91.
Lebanon: 189, 192.
Lee, General Robert E.: 25, 28, 40.
Leupp, Francis: 72.
Lewis, John: 134, 141.
Liberia: 11, 20, 22, 55-56.
Lincoln, Abraham: 4, 7-9, 15-25, 27-29, 32, 35, 41, 44, 61, 81, 89-91, 104, 107, 117, 140, 218, 221, 261, 263.
Liverpool: 22.
Lockwood, Belva: 57.
Lodge, Henry Cabot: 77, 78, 81, 92.
Lodge, Henry Cabot Jr.: 121, 125, 130-132, 139.
Louisiana: 10, 29, 37, 40-41, 50-52, 55, 57, 142, 155, 228, 259.
Lundy, Benjamin: 12.
Lusitania: 90.

 


M

Madison, James: 10-11, 201.
Mafia/mob: 97, 121, 126, 128, 135-136 & (f245), 137 (f247), 152-153, 170, 174-175, 262.
Maine: 77.
Maine: 25, 58, 67,
March on Washington Movement: 107.
Maternity & Infancy Act: 94.
Marshall, George: 109, 112.
Marshall, Justice John: 10-11.
Martin, Trayvon: 230.
Massachusetts: 25, 77, 92, 95, 125, 192.
McArthur, General Arthur: 86.
McCain, John: 200, 207, 217, 221, 224, 227, 229.
McCarthy, Eugene: 146.
McCarthy, Joe: 110, 115, 118, 120, 158, 195.
McClellan, George: 25.
McConnell, Mitch: 226, 247, 250.
McGovern, George: 165-166, 168, 176-177.
McKinley, William: 28, 72, 74, 75-79, 81, 176.
McNamara, Robert: 131-133, 136, 139, 146, 164, 167.
Medicare: 141, 144, 202, 220, 229, 240.
Memorial Day: 24.
Menominee Indians: 99, 111, 120, 165.
Meredith, James: 134.
Meriam Report: 99.
Mexico/Mexicans: 13, 65, 88, 90, 108, 111, 198, 204, 220, 234, 238-239, 262.
Military/army: 23-25, 27, 30-32, 37-38, 40, 44, 46, 48, 51, 54-55, 62, 67, 71, 76, 79, 83, 90, 98, 104, 107-108, 110, 113, 116, 118, 120-121, 123, 130-131, 136-137, 141, 167, 170, 175, 184, 186-187, 191, 193, 198, 200, 202, 212-213, 216-217, 219, 225, 235, 252.
Military Industrial Complex: 44, 114, 122, 128-129.
Militia: 18, 22, 42, 54, 225.
Minnesota: 22-23, 88, 120, 190.
Mississippi: 22, 29, 36-37, 127, 134, 142, 154, 187, 229.
Missouri: 11, 17-18, 20, 37, 45.
Mondale, Walter: 179, 190.
Monroe, James: 11, 83.
Monroe, Marilyn: 121, 175.
Montana: 48.
Moore, Levi: 69.
Moral Majority: 184-185, 196-197.
Morgan, J.P.: 73, 102.
Morgan, Thomas: 70.
Morrill Act: 21.
Mossadegh, Mohammad: 119.
"Mugwumps": 67-68.
Mussolini, Benito: 108.
Myer, Indian Commissioner Dillon: 111, 120.

 

N

Napoleon: 22.
Nation, Carrie: 79.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): 118.
National Forest Service: 84.
National Guard: 54, 75, 92, 117, 134.
National Negro Congress: 107.
National Rifle Association (NRA): 97, 106, 180-181, 202, 263.
National Security Council (NSC): 123, 131, 192, 246, 249.
Naval Arms Limitations: 94.
Nebraska: 13, 17-18, 21, 34, 75, 83, 120.
Neo-Conservatives: 184, 210.
Nevada: 21.
New Mexico: 23, 98, 110, 120.
New Deal: 105, 108-110, 114-115, 158.
New Federalism: 185.
New Jersey: 20, 68, 70, 89-90, 204, 213.
New Orleans: 24, 30, 152.
New York: 8, 24-25, 35, 37, 50-51, 53, 58-60, 64, 67-69, 73, 76, 78, 80-81, 83, 91, 97, 101, 105, 167, 172, 190, 214, 230.
"New World Order": 91.
Newspapers/Journalists: 22, 24-25, 97, 101, 136, 178, 241, 256.
Nicaragua: 88, 191-192, 198.
Nixon, Richard M.: 9, 113-114, 118, 121, 125-128, 138, 142, 150, 152, 158-169, 170-173, 175, 177-178, 181-182, 183-185, 187, 189, 196-197, 208, 224, 237, 249, 257, 262- 264.
Nobel Peace Prize: 80, 91, 109.
Noriega, Manuel: 192, 198.
Norman, Thomas: 102.
North, Oliver: 191.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): 198.
Nuclear energy: 110, 115, 118, 121, 142-143, 167, 187, 190, 193, 198, 200, 210, 215, 218, 231, 235, 241, 243, 258.
Nullifier Party: 17.

 

O

O'Connor, Sandra Day: 185.
Obama, Barrack: 119, 126, 141, 143, 156, 182, 214, 218 (f399), 221, 222-233, 236, 239-247, 249-250, 254.
Oil: 77, 87, 94, 99, 103, 106, 115, 119, 153, 163, 165, 172, 178-180, 185-186, 195, 199, 206-207, 210, 211, 215-216, 239, 242-244.
Oklahoma: 72, 94, 99.
Onassis, Aristotle: 149-150,
Onassis, Jackie Kennedy: 126, 137, 139, 146, 149-150.
Oregon: 21, 50, 92, 120.
Oswald, Lee Harvey: 124, 128 (f227), 129, 135, 137-138, 141, 170, 172.

 

P

Pacific Railway Act of 1862: 21-22.
Palestine: 153, 203.
Pan-American Conference: 67, 71, 78.
Panama: 62, 82, 101, 144, 180, 192, 198.
Parker, Alton B.: 83.
Parker, Ely S.: 38.
Parks, Rosa: 117.
Patriot Act: 213-214.
Paul, Alice: 187.
Pelosi, Nancy: 247, 256, 258.
Pendleton Act: 64.
Pennsylvania: 13, 36, 72, 82, 221, 234, 252, 254-255.
Pentagon Papers: 129, 132, 164, 166-168.
Peru: 153.
Philippines: 78, 86, 89, 113.
Pierce, Franklin: 13-14.
Pinchot, Gifford: 87.
Pinckney, Charles: 10.
Pinckney, Thomas: 10.
Planned Parenthood: 144, 195.
Pledge of Allegiance: 114.
Plessy V. Ferguson: 90.
Poindexter, John: 191.
Police actions: 29, 83, 92, 117, 134, 136-138, 150-151, 161, 183, 189, 199, 204, 214, 222- 223, 227, 229 , 231-233.
Polk, James: 13.
Populist Party: 72, 75, 89, 153, 248.
Posse comitatus: 54.
Postal Service: 63, 82, 250.
Potsdam Conference: 110.
Powell, Colin: 199, 215-217, 219.
Powers, Francis Gary: 122.
Presidential Pension: 122, 176.
Price, Hiram: 62.
Proclamations: 27.
Prohibition: 79, 88, 94, 96-97, 101, 103, 105, 202, 225, 236.
Protests: 8, 23, 88, 117, 124, 131, 145, 159, 161, 162, 164, 172, 183, 185, 209, 225, 230, 238, 239.
Pure Food and Drug Act: 82.
Putin, Vladimir: 8, 198, 211, 218, 235, 249-250.

 

Q

QAnon: 156, 237.

 

R

Racist/racism: 8, 9, 16, 35, 43, 52, 79, 81, 83-84, 96, 101, 107, 125, 148, 157, 161, 188-190, 226-229, 231-232, 237, 241, 261-262.
Radio: 95, 97, 101, 105, 126, 226.
Railroad: 21, 36-39, 43-45, 54, 56, 62, 64, 67-68, 73-74, 87, 89, 103.
Randolph, A. Philip: 107, 134.
Rattlesnake Dome oil scandal: 103.
Ray, James Earl: 147-148.
Reagan, Nancy: 184, 193, 197.
Reagan, Ronald: 8, 95-96, 143-144, 148, 155, 159, 166, 176, 178, 181-182, 183-194, 196- 197, 200-203, 207-208, 224, 262.
Reconstruction: 25, 29, 31-34, 36-37, 48-54, 56-57, 59, 61, 90, 103, 154-155, 262.
Red Cloud Investigation: 47.
Red Cross: 63.
Religion: 15, 86, 115, 126, 140, 144, 163, 184, 206.
Reservation: 23, 38, 46, 56, 62, 70, 88, 98, 99, 111, 120, 186.
Rice, Condoleezza: 217, 219.
Rice, Susan: 249.
Rock music (as torture): 198.
Rockefeller, Nelson III: 125, 159, 163, 166, 172, 176-177.
Roe V. Wade: 31, 144, 165, 201-202.
Roosevelt, Eleanor: 105, 107.
Roosevelt, Franklin (FDR): 69, 88, 93, 104-109, 110 (f197), 114-116, 123, 143, 155, 186, 258.
Roosevelt, Theodore: 71, 78, 80-85, 86-87, 88-90, 92.
Ross, Edmund G.: 34-35.
Ruby, Jack: 135, 170.
Rumsfeld, Donald: 210, 215, 217, 2219-220.
Russia: 8, 16, 80, 110, 118 (f210), 198, 216, 218, 234-236, 239, 242, 247, 249, 256.

 

S

Samoa: 72, 83.
Sandy Hook Elementary School: 232.
Saudi Arabia: 150, 212, 242.
Schurz, Carl: 15, 37-38, 52-53, 62.
Scott, Walter: 231.
Scott, Winfield: 13.
Secession: 15, 18, 20-21, 28, 35, 256, 261, 263.
Secret Service: 28, 85 (f154), 140, 176, 185, 262.
Secret society: 16, 86.
Segregation/desegregation: 23, 64, 90, 107-108, 110, 116-117, 134-135, 145, 155, 165, 167, 172, 178, 184, 191.
Sexual harassment: 191, 198, 203-204.
Seymour, Horatio: 37.
Schofield, General John M.: 33.
Shek, Chiang Kai: 112.
Shelby County V. Holder: 98.
Sheridan, General Phil: 30, 37, 46, 48, 51.
Sherman, John: 58-61, 82, 86.
Shriver, Sargent: 165-166.
Sioux Indians: 22-23, 47-48, 53, 64.
Sirhan, Sirhan: 150-153, 156.
Sitting Bull: 46, 70.
Slavery: 9, 11-14, 15, 17-21, 24, 27, 29-30, 33, 35, 36, 40, 52, 61, 69, 107, 145, 222, 231, 261.
Slaves: 8, 10, 11, 17, 19-20, 22-23, 27-31, 33, 40, 41, 52, 54-56, 62, 65, 261.
Smathers, George: 174.
Smith, Alfred E.: 101.
Smith, Caleb Blood: 23.
Smith, Edward P.: 45, 47.
Smith, John Q.: 47, 53.
Soldiers: 22, 24-25, 30, 49, 55, 57, 72-73, 83-84, 91, 97, 199, 219.
Social Security Administration: 104, 110, 141 (f257), 204, 210, 219, 229, 240.
Socialism: 90, 93, 101, 104, 148.
Socialist (Party): 21, 91, 93, 102-104.
South Carolina: 31, 49-52, 57, 142, 155-156, 232.
Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO): 113.
Southern Manifesto: 117.
Spanish American War: 77-78, 80.
Spanish Flu: 91-92.
Stalin, Joe: 110, 118.
"Stalwarts": 58-59, 61, 63-64.
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady: 13.
Stanton, Edwin M.: 29, 33, 35.
Star Wars: 193.
Stevens, Thaddeus: 28-29, 32, 36.
Stevenson, Adlai Jr.: 112-113, 155.
Stimson Doctrine: 104, 109.
Stock/stock market: 39, 45, 95-97, 100, 102, 103, 190-191, 207.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT): 166.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START): 193, 198.
Street and Highway Safety Commission: 101.
Strikes
Labor: 54, 68, 71-72, 74, 75, 79, 82, 92, 103, 111-112, 187, 258.
Military: 90, 120, 126, 139, 199, 205, 209, 211, 231, 216.

Sturgis, Frank: 136.
Suffrage: 12, 24, 29, 41, 70, 87, 90, 92, 187.
Supreme Court: 4, 8-10, 12-13, 23, 57, 74, 83, 86, 89-90, 96, 98, 106, 108, 111-112, 114, 117, 134, 140, 143-145, 156, 165, 167-168, 185, 191, 198, 201, 203-204, 208-209, 225, 228, 240, 245, 255, 259-260.

 

T

Taft, Alphonso: 47, 49, 84.
Taft-Hartley Act: 111-112.
Taft, Nellie: 87.
Taft, William H.: 84, 86-89, 92.
Tammany Hall: 69, 81.
Tariff Trade Act: 103.
Taylor, Zachary: 13.
Tea Party: 143-144, 224-229, 231, 234, 238, 257.
Teapot Dome Scandal: 94-95.
Tennessee: 24, 27-29, 105, 147, 156, 201, 228.
Tenure of Office Act: 30, 32-33, 68.
Terry, General Alfred: 48.
Texas: 13, 23, 37, 96, 127, 135-136, 138, 155, 176, 195, 200, 207, 229, 236, 255, 257.
Thieu, Nguyen Van: 173.
Thurmon, Strom: 111.
Tilden, Sam: 50-51, 61.
Treaty of Versailles: 91.
Truman, Harry S.: 106, 109-112, 113, 116, 119, 122-123, 143, 148, 262.
Trumball, Lyman: 35-36.
Trump, Donald J.: 4, 7-9, 20, 32, 91, 98, 110, 125, 140, 143, 154-157, 181, 191, 193, 204- 205, 218-219, 221-222, 226, 228, 234-259.
Turkey: 109, 128.
Twain, Mark: 51, 56, 66.
Tyler, John: 12-13.

 

U

Ukraine: 198, 247.
Unemployment: 44, 77, 103, 126, 162, 179, 187, 190, 197, 218, 257.
Union: Civil War: 11, 15, 18-24, 27-31, 34, 37, 67, 72, 113, 261.
Labor: 54, 72, 92-93, 110-112, 120, 123, 152, 158, 160-162, 187, 232.
United Nations: 91, 109, 115, 196-197.
Union Pacific Railroad: 37-38.
United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR/Soviet Union): 109, 118, 120-122, 127-128, 135, 142, 163, 166, 173, 175, 180, 184, 193, 198-199, 212.
United States vs. Cruikshank: 43.
Usher, John P.: 23.
Utah: 37.

 

V

Valentine, Robert: 88.
Van Buren, Martin: 12-13.
Vaughn, Robert: 128 (f227), 149.
Venezuela: 83.
Veterans: 58, 95, 103-104, 263.
Vietnam: 115-116, 118, 124-125, 127, 129-133, 137, 141-142, 144, 146-147, 149, 153, 159, 161, 163-164, 166-167, 170-171, 173, 175, 179, 181, 192, 215, 262.
Virginia: 12, 24, 37, 127, 156, 176.
Volstead Act: 91.
Voter fraud: 127, 255.
Voting Rights Act: 98, 141, 144, 156, 188, 259.

 

W

Wallace, George: 134, 159, 165, 176.
Wallace, Henry: 106, 109, 111.
Warren Commission: 137, 139, 141, 152, 170-171, 176.
Warren, Justice Earl: 110, 116-117.
Washington, Booker T.: 81, 82 (f147), 83, 88, 145.
Washington, George: 9.
Washita: 37.
Watergate: 95, 114, 128, 136, 164, 166-168, 173, 179.
Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs): 214-219, 221.
Webb, Lucy Ware: 57.
Weinberger, Casper: 192, 201-202.
West Virginia: 54, 96.
Whig Party: 12-13, 15, 17.
Wilbur, Ray Lyman: 102.
Wilson, Edith: 91-92.
Wilson, Woodrow: 85, 88, 89-92, 95, 101.
Wisconsin: 17, 20, 59, 73, 84, 96, 102, 111, 120, 222, 232, 234, 236, 245, 255.
Wolfowitz, Paul: 210, 215.
World Health Organization: 251.
World War I: 85, 90, 92, 98, 101, 104.
World War II: 104, 107, 112-113, 123, 140, 155, 195, 262.
Wounded Knee: 68, 70.

 

X

X, Malcolm: 141, 145, 162.

 

Y

Yellowstone National Park: 84.
Yeltsin, Boris: 198, 200.

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Now Available: From Lincoln to Trump: a political transformation

 

 

This adventure in journalistic history was unlike my other one in two ways. Civil War & Bloody Peace (CWBP) took me twenty years, from beginning to publication, and I was on the road, a lot, going to all the places at which Henry served to dig out primary information to find out why he was sent where he was sent. From Lincoln to Trump (FLT) took not even a year from beginning to publication, because I relied on information commonly available. CWBP was an exercise in objectivity - I had only to demonstrate why Henry said what he said late in life. I had no other agenda. But FLT was written more with subjective objectivity. I am not alone in disdaining Trump as president; historians overall call him the worst president, and Lincoln the best. I felt that made such interesting bookends for everything that came between them that I wanted to find out what the heck happened to the Republican Party from Lincoln to Trump.

 

I'm going to be presenting on both books in September, so I'm going to see if I can hash out a kind of rough draft here.

 

CWBP was a book that I submitted for publication for about 10 years before I gave up and self-published. Well, I couldn't let all that research go to waste, right? Reasons given by publishers for not picking it up varied. Mostly, the lack of my being able to demonstrate that this wasn't Henry's personal story - because he was a nobody, right? But that his orders, where he was going as a non-comm during his 20 years in the army at such a pivotal time in history, I felt could teach us a lot about our history, in a very real way. And that it does.

 

I queried a few publishers on FLT but I knew that I wanted to get it out before the election, because I planned to fill with what happened during every presidency that led to today. No publisher who responded was able to handle such a quick turnaround. So again, I had no choice but to self-publish.

 

This means, of course, that I now have a second book that is not validated by any other historian. And yes, that bothers me. I sent CWBP to my thesis advisor and he hasn't responded since receiving it. I asked for a review from someone on campus. No response. I asked one of my thesis committee members to have someone he knows read FLT before it goes out. Again, no response. I don't know why. And not knowing feels like - when your favorite pet cat disappears one day and never comes back. You never get closure.

 

Anyway, FLT was a cheaper process. I depended on some very factual books to come up with some of the main events in each president in this survey. From there I found some controversy and dug out further information to more fully develop each of the issues in the book.

 

For CWBP, I used a more day to day approach, or fort to fort, and showed what happened at each location that sent Henry there, and kept him there. He was in the Civil War starting in 1862, and then went west - a total of five enlistments, more than any other soldier I found in this research, until medical discharge in 1884.

 

In FLT, I was also able to use research I'd been compiling for quite some time on the assassinations in the '60s. It seems that people don't understand how transformational that period was in our society - and I think that with Trump we're facing another transformational period. But as I put this book togather I found something in the '60s that never occurred to me before. Is it possible the Democrats of the South - Dixiecrats - killed JFK? 

 

So you don't just see Republican presidents, although the focus IS on the GOP. I also do brief comparisons on issues of economy, war, racism and more to Democratic presidents. Because somewhere along the way, the two parties flipped. But did they? I was surprised by the answer, and you will be, too.

 

The seed for FLT was planted in CWBP. In that book I demonstrated how the Republicans gave up on black rights. But I was only scratching the surface, because the book had to have an ending, and I chose Henry's death in 1916. What I learned in FLT made this country's character so clear. When Trump says "make America great again," he really does mean a kind of re-segregation, and dominance, that he felt made us great once before. He is a direct response to Obama's reaching out to the world for healing after the divisive presidency of GW Bush and his Iraq war. But his election is so much more than that, as you'll see.

 

Both books depended on the digging out of facts. You cannot rely on the opinion of others. If you find someone's opinion, and he makes it sound like fact, you have to dig further. While putting FLT together, the libraries closed down. I had to rely on books I could buy, and that I had in my library, and whatever I could find online. But I don't rely on opinions.

 

You will find controversy. I talk about who could have assassinated civil rights leaders like the Kennedys and King; not lone assassins. I include who was freemason throughout this history, but then I also include a discussion of freemasonry in the appendix. I open things up further with my own commentary throughout, something I did not do in CWBP. But I wanted to make sure readers did not miss some of the connections I saw throughout the book.

 

I finally finished up with some more books from the library. In all FLT is an amazing resource. Give it a try. Help validate this work, so that more people take a chance on it. I will use any reviews in my presentation in September.

 

Thanks for reading.

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